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  • Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
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1.1      Background of the study

The Man is a social being who cannot stay in a place according to William’s theory on clash of pyramids. This is especially were most things needed are not in site.The fulani’s who are known to be the normadic people migrated from Mali according to Mgbogunje (1996). These people settled where they found green vegetation to feed their cattle. They keep moving and taking refuge from one place to another in search of betterment. People who now form communities, state and countries today were migrant from one continent or the other.

The major problem facing Lokoja local government area of Kogi State and some other parastatals of similar magnitude is not merely the scarcity of well trained manpower but their inability to effectively utilize the skill of the few available one’s. The ability to manage involves a lot more than the technical and conceptual skills, and this has to do with the managers ability to work and interact effectively with other members of the organization. In order to spur other members of the organization to strive willingly to accomplish the organizational task, the administrator who manages people must be able to put in place the necessary motivational techniques which can galvanize subordinate to low productivity. The level of productivity is therefore determined by individual rewards and needs.


Over years, people have showed considerable concern from all walks of life for the development of rural areas both in advanced and developing countries. The crux of the matter, however, is that the new nations of west Africa with particular reference to Nigeria have given priority to their urban population as they leave the rural population frustrated in such areas as provision of social amenities, recreational centres or facilities, higher education, and employment opportunities among others.

This has led to the problem of rural migration, which this research is designed to address. The problem that causes rural urban migration is slated below: poor access road, poor school/colleges, high level of poverty, lack of recreational centres, poor electricity etc.


The topic of this research project will be treated within the cycle of the case study but other relevant issues concerning the topic outside the case study will be used to compare or justify the topic as wide range phenomenon.

It will look at the effects of rural urban migration both on the case study and outside the case study in general.

Relevant solutions to the problems of rural areas will be preferred.


The main objectives of the following can be seen in the below:

1.   To throw more light on the rural infrastructural development as a solution to rural urban migration

2.   To encourage people to stay and develop their communities

3.   To suggest way by which rural urban migration can be checked and minimized and reduced to the barest minimum

4.   To suggest ways by which the government can encourage the development of rural areas.


For the purpose of satisfying the demands of this study, the following research hypotheses are to be looked into:

H0:the provision of rural infrastructure does not cause any reduction in rural-urban migration

H1:the provision of rural infrastructure does cause reduction in rural-urban migration

H02:rural-urban migration cause inefficiency in public service

H2:rural-urban migration does not cause inefficiency in public service


Research of this kind is important in many ways to a good number of people, government and other developmental institutions.

Firstly, it will add value to an existing literature on rural development and urbanization.

Secondly, it will assist all students within the realm of social science particularly those in public administration and regional planning department.

Thirdly, the study will be of immense value to government particularly the policy makers at all level on how best to develop rural areas.

Finally, other people who may wish to conduct research on rural-urban migration as it affects educational development at the rural level will equally find this work very helpful or useful.


In this process of embarking on this research study, the following problem were encountered.

1.   Time factor: There was no adequate time for the researcher to cope with the demands of the study

2.   Information: This researcher was unable to get adequate information in the course of the study

3.   Geographical location: This is also another limitation of this rigorous work. That is, the researcher does not have adequate time to travel from one geographical location to the other

4.   Financial problem: Lack of adequate fund is also another problem of this rigorous work.


The following key terms will be defined briefly:

1.   Development: Emize (1979) See development as involving progression, movement and of advance towards something better. Its improvement on the material and non material aspect of life.

2.   Effects: Simply mean the result of an action, the outcomes, the impression produced (Chambers mini dictionary of mark costable 1989).

3.   Migration: According to Ayodele (1995), it is the movement of people from one place e.g. village to cities are towns, or movement from one country to another country.

4.   Solution: According to Oxford mini dictionary (1999), it simply refers to remedy to rural diseases or trouble

5.   Rural infrastructural development: This simply mean creation of infrastructures that assist in developing a place such as dam, road, communication network, electricity etc.

6.   Rural area: This is an area that lack some development maturity e.g. in population size, occupation, communication, information, education system, nature etc.


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.     Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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