BOREHOLE SINKING AND WATER SUPPLY TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL AND BIO-ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

BOREHOLE SINKING AND WATER SUPPLY TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL AND BIO-ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance and is the main constituent of the earth. It is been consumed by most living organisms and has a chemical formular H2O. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists with its solid state being ice, and gaseous state being water vapor or steam (Ulrich et. al, 2005). Human bodies are approximately 60% water, blood is at least 50% water and the human brain made of 77% water (Stiles, 1998).

Safe drinking water is essential to human and other life forms though it provide no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in all most every part of the world, but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation. Some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water based vulnerability. Water plays an important role in the world economy. Approximately 70% of the fresh water used by human goes to agriculture.

The main source of drinking water for many people around the world is from surface water. But today, the main water source for over 2 billion people is aquifers and underground water.

Borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally. Borehole may be constructed for many different purposes including the extraction of water, other liquid (such as petroleum) or gases (such as natural gas), as part of a geotechnical investigation, environmental site assessment, mineral exploration for geothermal installation or for under storage. Typically, a borehole used as a well is completed by installing a vertical pipe (casing) and well screen to key, the borehole from caving. This also helps prevent surface contaminants from entering the borehole and protects any installed pumps, from drawing in sand and sediments.

Drilling means sinking a borehole using a drilling rig or a hand operated rig. The machinery and techniques to advance a borehole very considerably according to manufacture geological conditions, and the intended purpose for offshore drilling floating units or flat forms supposed by seafloor are used for the drilling rig.

1.2           STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The borehole of the department of agricultural and bio environmental engineering Kaduna Polytechnic has been in a bad condition, infact, the crack-handling has been removed and the chain transmission is rusted due to the frequent exposure of rainfall on it. Effort were made to make the borehole functional but it was discovered that the depth of the borehole was shallow which resulted to the water shortage during the dry season. It was suggested after geophysical survey that a new borehole should be constructed. There is need to distribute the water to points (places) such as the laboratories and department lawns by providing pipe networks to deliver the water.  

1.3           AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.3.1      The aim of this study is to sink borehole and supply water to the department of agricultural to environmental engineering.

1.3.2      Specific objectives are:

1.               To locate site for borehole sinking

2.               To carry out a geophysical investigation

3.               To carry out the well development

4.               To distribute water (H2O) to various units

1.4           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Due to inadequate supply of water at different important locations such as the soil laboratory, the department main building and the workshop of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering Department of Kaduna Polytechnic, the study tends to sink a borehole and channel water to various areas where water is needed at the department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering of Kaduna Polytechnic so as to facilitate effective supply of water. 

1.5           SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the project is limited to providing water to the various units in the Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic.


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