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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Indian hemp smoking in recent years has become considerably pleasurable to the addict. Indian hemp is a greenish-gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers. Indian hemp is a common name for a drug made from the dried leaves and flowering tops of the Indian hemp plant cannabis sativa. People smoke, chew, or eat indian hemp for its hallucinogenic and intoxicating effects. Different classes of people use it, it could be wrapped and smoked, it could be soaked into local gin and sold by local gin sellers, which abound in many part of our society. It is known by a number of slang names, including pot, grass, reefer, weed, and Mary Jane. (Iversen, 2008). Iversen also noted that indian hemp is a substance that has long been used as medicine and an intoxicant. Nowlis (1975) observed that indian hemp is a substance which affects the structure and function of the organism negatively inducing the organism into states, such as confusion, acute panic reactions, anxiety attacks, fear, a sense of helplessness, and loss of self-control. It was reported in Tide magazine of July 6th (2008), that, indian hemp is among the cheapest class of hard drugs that many secondary school students could purchase and use. A rap of indian hemp is sold for N20.00 while a pinch of cocaine or heroin goes for N50.00 and above. The implication of this is that large numbers of Nigerian youths have access to indian hemp. Indian hemp smoking is similar to cigarette smoking. Akube (1997) explained that indian hemp is a produce that harm the body of a smoker. This is a situation where the person inhales the burning fumes produced by the hand-rolled cigarettes form or pipes. Some of the observable characteristics of smokers that distinguish them from non smokers are odour similar to the burnt leave, excessive laughter, unkempt hairs, red eyes, black lips, excessive appetite, yellowish stains on fingertips etc. Indian hemp smoking is widely spread among adolescents, students and young adults. The percentage of middle school students, who are reported to have been using or smoking indian hemp, increase throughout the early 1990, 1991 and 1992. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2003). Indian hemp smoking is a common phenomenon among students in senior secondary school in the area of study. Anumonye(1980) observed that secondary school students who smokes indian hemp initiate themselves by smoking at the age of 11 years, and that a friend’s home is the most often smoking place, and the observable behavior among this smokers are relaxation and a feeling of well being, euphoria, enhanced sensation of taste, touch, hearing and vision. Abimbola Fashola, wife of the Lagos State Governor was reported in the Tide Tuesday July 6th (2008), urging the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency to identify and educate grower and smokers of Indian hemp on it harmful effect on the society. Tide (2008) reported that, the commander of National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) Mr. Eigege Adamu, in River State, in an address at ceremony of United Nation day on Drug said that indian hemp is an illicit drug, that causes 80% of violent crime among secondary school students in our society. The extent of Indian hemp abuse among secondary school students has prompted the mass media to organize discussion by official of mass media on ills of indian hemp smoking. Non-smokers in this study are therefore referred to as, students who do not indulge in the smoking of indian hemp whether in secret or in public places, and are involved in positive academic activities that will impact positively in their lives. Non-smokers are also individuals or students who do not possess the observable characteristics of those who indulge in the smoking acts. These are normal students that keep the rules and regulations of the school and obey constituted authorities. Academic achievement is a situation where learning outcome is appraised in terms of matching it with standardized testing and its successful completion. It is all about what students can actually do when they have finished a course of achievement study. The need for achievement is a stable, learned characteristic in which satisfaction is obtained by striving for excellence (Feldman, 2002). During the course of teaching and learning the teacher should employ instructional strategies that will reinforce behaviours’ that is geared towards success at the end of the academic session. There are factors that influence students academic achievements such as innate abilities, character, traits, environmental, pedagogy, health and nutritional, motivation and school management. Though, these factors can be manipulated to achieve the desired objectives, as it can make or maim the successful completion of the child’s education.
STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
Indian hemp smoking by students has been largely associated with various factors and has been addressed from different dimensions by the researcher. Such influence are evident due to changes in the environment and school climate; it is also ranging from pleasure seeking, differing stress, joblessness, parental background and peer pressure. However, it has been observed that indian hemp smoking has a very strong influence on students ‘social behaviour and academic performance. Students’ lifestyles remain an important determinant to their behavior and by extension their academic performance. Indian hemp smoking could influence social behaviour and academic performance of students in schools, negative social behaviour like cultism; truancy, drug/alcohol, gangsterism, and examination malpractice have been on the increase recently in Nigeria.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the perception of undergraduate students on the effect of hemp smoking on academic performance of history students. Other specific objectives of the study are;
- To examine the negative consequences of hemp smoking on students social behavior.
- To assess the level of hemp smoking among Nigerian undergraduates.
- To determine the relationship between hemp smoking and academic performance.
- To evaluate the negative implications of hemp smoking on educational development in Nigeria.
- To recommend other ways of reducing hemp smoking among Nigerian undergraduates.
- What are the negative consequences of hemp smoking on students’ social behavior?
- What is the level of hemp smoking among Nigerian undergraduates?
- What is the relationship between hemp smoking and academic performance?
- What are the negative implications of hemp smoking on educational development in Nigeria?
- Are there other ways of reducing hemp smoking among Nigerian undergraduates?
H0: There is no significant relationship between hemp smoking and academic performance of undergraduates’ students.
H1: There is a significant relationship between hemp smoking and academic performance of undergraduates’ students.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of immense benefit towards the development of tertiary education in Nigeria by examining the effect of hemp smoking on students’ academic performance with the sole aim of improving students’ academic performance. The study would also benefit students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing a further study on the subject matter.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is on the perception of undergraduates on the effect of hemp smoking on academic performance of history students using the University of Ilorin as the case study.
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
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