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1.1 Background of the study
The purpose of teaching is primarily to assist the learner acquire the type of knowledge and skill that will produce desirable change in him. This can be actualized if the teaching and learning process provides the enabling environment for the learner to think critically, analytically and consequently, be an agent of change. Generally, the educational system is subdivided into the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. In some cases, the pre-primary education is an integral part of the primary level.
The secondary level occupies a critical position in the educational system. According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN (2004, p.18), “secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage”. The broad goals of secondary education therefore shall be to prepare the individual for useful living within the society and for higher education.
The role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the 21st century education system has been described as vital to keeping abreast with rapidly changing technologies. The introduction of information and communication technology into the Nigerian educational system is very important as it will translate into huge potentials in terms of positive outcomes. Presently, investments into ICTs in Nigerian’s educational system have not yielded much when compared to similar investments made in telecommunication (Atureta, 2011).
The field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide. ICT has made impact on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning and research in the institutions using it (Kwacha, 2007). According to Ololube, Ubogu and Ossai (2007), the introduction of ICT usage, integration and diffusion has initiated a new age in educational methodologies, thus has radically changed traditional method of information delivery and usage patterns in the domain as well as offering contemporary learning experience for both instructors and learners. ICT has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills, motivate and engage students in learning, helps to relate school experiences to work places, helps to create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, contribute to radical changes in school, strengthens teaching, and provides opportunities for connection between the school and the world (Davis & Tearle, 1999; Lemke & Coughlin, 1998; cited by Yusuf, 2005).
The rapid growth in Information Communication and Technologies (ICTs) have brought remarkable changes in the twenty-first century, as well as affected the demands of modern societies. ICT is becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and in our educational system. Therefore, there is a growing demand on educational institutions to use ICT to teach the skills and knowledge students need for the 21st century. Information and communication technology (ICT) has become, within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. Many countries now regard understanding ICT and mastering the basic skills and concepts of ICT as part of the core of education, alongside reading, writing and numeracy.
Of all the subjects in the school curriculum and at primary level in Nigeria, English language seems to be the most difficult subject to teach. Some of the reasons put forward are, the nature of the subject and the way it is being taught. It is believed that English language is taught in a way that discourages open questions, inquiry and active participation. The effect of this is that the mind and imagination of primary school pupils are closed. Adejuyigbe and Majasan (1970) said: the study of English language from its inception was through verbal description of English language features, which made the study very abstract and quite uninteresting. Adesida (1985) also revealed that the undue emphasis on theoretical aspect of English language to the detriment of scientific and experiential approach had made the subject very abstract and also uninteresting. The resultant effect of all the above is that the subject no longer attracts young scholars due to the dull, uninspiring and stereotyped approach being adopted. Ajaegbuna (1969) criticized those who argued that English language is a dull and difficult subject. He argued that English language lessons are often very dull because there is too much chalk and talk and no enough pupils participation.
Rapid and vast expansion of various technologies in the teaching and learning of English language throughout the world is evident. Kent emphasized how rapidly, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have developed and been incorporated by educational institutions in the last few decades and will probably develop at the same speed in the coming decades (Kent, 2003: 337-340). Prensky assessed the use of technology in education from a student’s perspective and called the new generation “digital natives,” that is those who were born in a digital age amid technologies including digital games, email, internet, cell phones and many others which are fundamental to their lives. He also called “digital immigrants” those who were not born in the digital world but to some extent have adapted to these technologies. He emphasized the difficulties of teaching such a generation of “digital natives” and underlined the importance of maximizing the adaptation of technologies into education as “digital immigrants” (Prensky, 2001: 1- 2). Van Der Schee stated that although the accessibility of the new technologies in teaching English language has increased and many governments are trying to incorporate them in education, there are still many areas of the globe which do not accept digital literacy (Van Der Schee, 2006: 190).
A child growing in Nigeria is surrounded by a complex language situation. Besides, having to master his own and often a second language, he also requires a thorough command of the English Language if he is to be educated in the modern sense of the world. The demand for English Language in countries formerly associated with Britain has been growing since their independence. Thus, English Language has grown and spread all over the world following colonial expansion, education and technology.
As stressed in the National Policy on Education (2004) for the achievement of Educational objectives, emphasis is laid on the medium of instruction in the primary school to be initially the mother tongue of the language of the immediate environment and at a later stage, English Language. Fafumoa, Macauley and Sokoya (1989) stated that the play way method of teaching makes it possible for learners to give free reins to their thoughts and express same in creative language, thus paving the way of meaningful education . they also state that other advantages of the play way method are that of having free knowledge from the preserves of the elites few, given a greater number of people access to education and personal development. The importance of the concept formation in learning process should not be treated with a wave of hand. It helps the child to be bound psychologically with his family even when outside the home, thereby making the learning environment a familiar-place which naturally would have been strange to him. He expresses himself easily in his play way method of learning. It is expected that this familiar environment will facilitated the learning process and hence the acquisition of English Language by primary school children.
As children learn through purposeful quality play experience, they build critical basic skills for cognitive development and academic achievement. These include verbalization ,language comprehension, vocabulary, imagination, questionings, problem solving, observation, co-operation skills and the perspectives others.
Through play, children learn a set of skills, social skill, creativity, hand-eye coordination, problem-solving and imagination. It is argued that these skills better learned through play than through flash cards or academic drills.
According to Roberta Michnick Golin Koffs,(1884) the level of children’s play rises when adults play with them. The variety of play children’s engage increases when adult join in. English language is used in communication of information through symbols according to definite and systematic rules for combining them, by integrity series of features that group together to form a class of ideals or object, in that way classifying information into meaningful categories.
English Language at present serves as “Lingua Franca” for the various ethnic groups in Nigeria which are characterized by diverse languages and dialects. This adoption has helped to break the language barrier and forestall any problems that should have been inherent in it. It has a great political significance, a factor for the growth of a wider community unidentified by tribalism, creed or religion which often create division in the country. The English Language gives the country a national outlook and fills the gap left by an indigenous common language.
1.2 Statement of problem
Today, as the educational sector is faced with series of changes and reforms, it is good to reflect on matters concerned with English language and the dissemination of English language knowledge and lessons. Numerous teaching strategies have been developed which correspond to the accommodation of students' need and diverse learning method. One of such strategy involves the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Considering the enormous benefits of ICT in teaching English language in primary schools, the Nigerian academic institutions still experience some obstacles or hindrances in the effective and efficient use of the ICT resources. Today, ICT acquisition and implementation is facing a lot of problems. This research work is being conducted to expose some of the inhibiting factors that are hindering the impact of ICT in Nigerian academic. Some of the factors hindering the impact of ICT on Nigerian education include the huge capital investment in the purchase of hardware, software and standby generators due to epileptic power supply and the lack of technical know-how are some of the problems encountered.
1.3 Purpose of the study
This study was undertaken majorly to investigate the effect of introducing ICT in teaching and learning of English language in primary Schools.
Specifically, the study intends to:
1. Identify teachers’ and students’ perception of the use of ICT in teaching English language in primary Schools.
2. Recognize teachers’ and students’ perception of the use of media such as computer system, projectors, video player etc, in teaching English language; and;
3. Evaluate the difference between the use of traditional method of teaching English language and the use of ICT in teaching English language.
1.4 Significance of the study
The following objectives are addressed in this study:
1. To find out if secondary school English language teachers are exposed to new technologies; whether or not they are aware of the new technologies and whether these new technologies are also available for teaching English language in primary schools.
2. To investigate the extent of the integration of these new technologies into teaching English language in primary schools.
3. To examine the factors that inhibits teachers from using the new technologies and find out the types of the technology currently in use in teaching English language in primary schools.
1.5 Research questions
During the course of the study, the researcher seeks to provide suitable answers to the problem following the questions below:
1. What is the impact of ICT in teaching and learning of English language in primary schools?
2. Will the introduction of ICT make English language class interesting for primary students?
3. Will the introduction of ICT improve students’ learning and knowledge of English language in primary schools?
1.6 Research hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated for the guidance and advancement of the research study:
H0: There is no significant effect of ICT in teaching and learning of English language in primary schools.
H1: There is significant effect of ICT in teaching and learning of English language in primary schools.
H0: No relationship exists between the introduction of ICT in teaching English language and pupils’ interest in English language class.
H1: There is a relationship between the introduction of ICT in teaching English language and pupil’s interest in English language class.
H0: ICT will have no significant effect in improving the pupils learning and knowledge in English language.
H1: ICT will have significant effect in improving the pupils learning and knowledge in English language.
1.7 Delimitation of the study
The study was carried out to investigate the effect of information and communication technology on the teaching and learning of English language, with particular reference to primary schools in Lagos State. The study is delimited to the primary schools in Lagos state, Yaba Local Government Area to be precise. This is because of her representative nature of all the primary schools in Lagos state, proximity to the researcher, time and financial constraints.
1.8 Scope of the study
This research work is on the the effect of information and communication technology on the teaching and learning of English language in Nigeria using primary schools in Lagos State, Yaba Local Government Area as a case study.
1.9 Definition of terms
Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Although ICT has several definitions depending on the nature of its use, for this review ICT (information and communication technology) is used as an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. We refer to ICT in the particular context of ICT provision, policy and teacher factors that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education.
Education: This is a process by which a society deliberately transmits its cultural heritage through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions. Behaviourist view education as the process of changing the behavioural pattern of people. Behaviour in this sense refers to the way in which we change the learner, his or her thinking, his or her feelings and other overt actions.
Educational Technology: Is a process involving, “a systematic approach to identifying instructional problems and then designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instructional solutions”
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