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This study examined the influence of social networking on the academic performance of Caritas university student. A study of Caritas University students. Quantitative survey method was adopted for the study. The population consists of 200 undergraduate students. The study made use of Taro Yame’s formula to sample 133 students. Questionnaires were employed as the instrument for data collection. The questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly selected students. The entire questionnaires administered were duly filled and retrieved given a high response rate of 100%.
1.1 Background of the study
The internet plays a fundamental role in organizations and societies. The basic fact justifies the information revolution that has been taking place across the globe in recent times. The term internet, according to Cawkell in Ogedegbe (2006, p.152) is a large computer network formed out of some thousands of interconnected networks, and it supports a whole range of services such as electronic, file transfer protocol, data base access and many others. It is therefore not surprising the success story behind the advent of the internet. It is also known as a network that links computers all over the world by satellite and telephone, connecting users with service networks such as Email and the world wide web. Today the internet has linked thousands of nations and enterprises across the world. Hence the world which appears physically large has been made small by the internet and justifies the reference to the world as a global village. The internet gave rise to the birth of social networking sites, which, according to Okenwa (2008, p. 15) are web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. What makes social network sites unique is not that they allow individuals to meet strangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks. This can result in connections between individuals that would not otherwise be made, but that is often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between "existing ties" who share some offline connection (Hawthorn, 2005).
Social media are fast becoming very popular means of both interpersonal and public communication in Nigeria and the world at large. Social media are modern interactive communication channels through which people connect to one another, share ideas, experiences, pictures, messages and information of common interest. What distinguishes the social media from the conventional means of communication is their interactive nature which allows the audience to participate in it from any part of the world they reside. McQuail (2010:39) differentiates the social media from the traditional mass media when he noted that “traditional mass communication was essentially one-directional, while the new forms of communication are essentially interactive.” This interactive aura of the new media confers an unprecedented popularity on them. The social media by their nature have the capabilities of educating, informing, entertaining and „inflaming‟ the audience. Above all, they possess a „contagious and outreaching influence‟ which the conventional media lack. This potential is most likely what Osahenye (2012:52) refers to as “unstoppable power of the social media.” As a novel phenomenon, it is necessary to examine how Nigerian students use the new means of communication. This is because students‟ contribution as youths can make or mar any nation. Okolloh cited by Essoungou (2010:paragraph, 2), explains that, “the new communication technology is one of the few ways that young Africans can bypass the inefficiencies in the system that allow the status quo to hold on. It lowers the barriers to entry for everyone to get involved and be heard.” A study like this shall help to ascertain whether students‟ use of the social media could be regulated or not. This is obviously because the disposition of people of a given community could shape the media in existence there, just like a cerebral media scholar Anim (2007:1) aptly notes that “…societies greatly influence the operations and functions of the media that operate within those societies.” The manner in which the social media were used and the role they played in the recent uprising which rocked the Middle-East popularly referred to as „Arab Spring‟ could be deciphered as credence to the above academic‟s observation. Now just like radio or television stations, social media sites spread everywhere in Nigeria and are bound to be sprouting as technologies continue to improve; however, the problem lies in the point that the purposes which the users apply the new media for are still obscure. This is what Folorunso, Vincent, Adekoya and Adewale (2010: 326), perceived when they argue generally that, “in Africa, social media networking site is becoming widely spread than it has ever been before and it tends to be majorly accepted by the youths. Yet the widespread adoption by users of these sites is not clear, as it appears that people‟s perception of this technology is diverse. By and large, this study among other things is set to methodically examine why the students in universities within South-East Nigeria make use of the social media. The reason for such academic inquiry is to unravel some of the fundamental purposes which students use the new media to achieve. Social media has emerged to be one of the most vital communication means. It exist so as to ease communication among people regardless of the expanse, making it open to people to easily share information, files and pictures and videos, create blogs and send messages, and conduct real-time conversations. These systems are referred to as social, simply because they allow communication with friends, course mates, teachers, project supervisors, lecturers etc so easily and effectively. Social media which are a form of electronic communication that has become the highest activity on the internet. According to Kim and Kim, (2010) “Social media are the emerging digital communication channels which create a user oriented information sharing ground where any people can generate or subscribe information content as both information provider and consumer”. Buettner, (2016) sees social media as “computer mediated tools that allow people or companies to create, share exchange information, career interest, ideas, pictures/ virtual communities and networks” By suggestion, through Social media, individuals can with no much of a stretch trade profitable information which can enhance their profession interest, thoughts and so on. It additionally helps in sending pictorial outlines of thoughts. Andreas and Micheal (2010) asserts that “social media is a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content”. Kietzmann and Hermkens (2011) elaborates on this, stating that “social media depends on Mobile and Web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content. They introduce substantial land pervasive changes to communications between communities and individuals”. In contribution, Ganiyu, and Akinreti, (2011) assert that “the emergence of social media has increase interactivity among people, making them to be producers and consumers of information in a simultaneous manner”. Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, 2go etc have brought tremendous improvement in the communication system which enhances learning, it has provided different entertainment functions which serve as a tool for social change and fast exchange of information. With the aid of the internet students can form their own page, access to news and lectures notes via email sent to him/her by a lecturer. An additional benefit of social technologies provided on the internet is that they are frequently free or require marginal investment, eliminating a potential barrier to adoption (Brown, 2010). There has been various overview and opinions which recognized four major advantages of social media use in higher education. These include, enhancing relationship, improving learning motivation, offering personalized course material, and developing collaborative abilities .This means that social networking activities have the possibility of enhancing student contact and is used to improve their participation in class, particularly where introverted students are involved. “Students can function in online group learning, with less or no anxiety of needing to raise questions before peers at school” (Wheeler, Yeomans, and Wheeler, 2008).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Since the initiation of social media sites in the 1990s, it is understood that in many part of the world the academic performance of students is facing a lot of neglect and challenges. There is a divergence, interruption and alienated attention between social networking activities and their academic work. It is pragmatic that students dedicate more attention to social media than they do to their studies. Asemah, Okpanachi and Edegoh, (2013) describe this situation stating that “it is a common sight to see a youth chatting in sensitive and highly organized places like church, mosque a nd lecture venues. Some are so carried away that even as they are walking along the high way, they keep chatting
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the influence of social networking on the academic performance of Caritas university student, but to aid the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;
i) To investigate the effect of social media on the academic performance of Caritas university
ii) To examine the relationship between social networking and academic performance
iii) To examine the impact of social networking on the reading habit of student
iv) To examine the role of social networking site on poor academic performance of student
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: social media does not have any effect on the academic performance of Caritas university student
H1: social media does have an effect on the academic performance of Caritas university student
H02: there is no significant relationship between social networking and student academic performance in Caritas University
H2: there is a significant relationship between social networking and student academic performance in Caritas University
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of significance to students of different higher of learning as it would enlighten them and the entire nation. Finally, this study will also help to serve as literature (reference source) to the public, individuals and corporate bodies into what to carry out on further research on social network on academic adjustment of in school adolescent among Nigeria’s university students
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers influence of social networking on academic performance of Caritas university student; there were some factors which limited the scope of the study
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
INFLUENCE: The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself.
SOCIAL NETWORK: A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors, sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
ACADEMIC: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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