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Title page                                                                                          i        

Approval page                                                                                  ii

Declaration                                                                                                 iii

Dedication                                                                                         iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                              vi

Abstract                                                                                            viii


Background of the study                                                                            1

Statement of the problem                                                                  6

Purpose of study                                                                               7

Significance of the study                                                                             7

Research questions                                                                            8

Delimitation of the study                                                                            8


Concept of Audio Visual Materials                                                  9

Types of Audio-Visual Materials                                                      17

The Importance of Instructional Materials in Teaching

and Learning Process                                                                        20

The availability and provision of instructional materials in schools          24

Sources and Production of Instructional Materials                                     28     

Maintenance of audio visual materials                                              35

The utilization of instructional materials in schools                          37

Summary of review related literature                                                         39


Research Design                                                                                41

Area of Study                                                                                   41

Population of the study                                                                    42

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                    42

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                   42

Validation of the Instrument                                                             43     

Reliability of the Instrument                                                             44

Method of Data Collection                                                                44

Method of Data Analysis                                                                           44



Introduction                                                                                      52

Re-statement of the procedure                                                                    52

Summary of Procedure                                                                     53

Major Findings                                                                                 53

Discussion of Findings                                                                      54

Conclusion                                                                                        58

Implications                                                                                      59

Recommendations                                                                                      60

References                                                                                         62



The study sought to assessment on the utilization of audio visual materials in teaching basic technology in secondary schools in Kaduna state. The specific purposes of the study determine the possible sources of audio visual materials for the teaching of basic technology in junior secondary schools in Kaduna south, Find out the ways audio visual materials for the teaching of basic technology are maintained by school administrators/teachers in junior secondary schools in Kaduna South and determine the extent to which audio visual materials properly used in the teaching of basic technology in secondary schools in Kaduna South. Three research questions were design and used to guide this study. The population of the study is 40 since the population was manageable there was no need for sampling. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Kaduna Metropolis. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coeffiecient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyse the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that  donations of audio visual materials from philanthropists and other spirited people among others are the major sources from which audio visual materials can be obtained for teaching and learning of Basic Technology in junior secondary schools in Kaduna south local government of Kaduna state, classroom teachers in junior secondary schools utilizes audio visual materials during classroom instruction. And the problem associated with the maintenance as well as management of audio visual materials will make a resourceful teacher and school administrator know how to improvise, procure and maintain the available audio visual materials that could improve and profer solutions to the existing problems. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.



Background of the study

In education, a teacher is a person who provides schooling for pupils and students. The role of a teacher is often formal and on going, carried out by way of occupation or profession at a school or other place of formal and, on going, education. Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behavior, skills values, or preferences and may involve sythzing different types of information (Adeyanju, 1997). Learning and teaching is the concern of a trained teacher, learning is a complex process, it can be defined as a change in disposition, a relatively permanent change in behavior overtime and this is brought about partly by experience. Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skills knowledge, perception, facts, principles and new information at hand (Adeyanju, 1997). Learning can be reinforced with different teaching/learning materials because they stimulate motivate as well as focus learners attention for a while during the instructional process. This is most important at the lower level of education. Junior secondary school in Nigeria are designed to provide general education. According to Ani (1996), junior secondary schools provide broad based education to student at the junior level providing training in basic technical and vocational skills needed for the job market and encourage children to identify their areas of interest and capability in possible occupations early also to be able to opt for the required training at appropriate institutions before entering any occupation of one’s choice. This underscores the need to make education at this stage practicable and real especially in the area of basic technology.

Basic technology as a subject in junior secondary school requires intense demonstration and illustration in order to develop and maintain a high level of interest in the students. The subject Basic technology, according to Uwaifo and Edigan (2011) was structured to assist learners to develop interest in technology. The aim is that at the end of junior secondary school, technological appreciation would have been attained and solid foundation laid for student’s entrance into a vocation of their choice. The national curriculum for junior secondary schools (1998) states that in order to reduce ignorance about technology, help lay a foundation for national development and for increase in skill acquisition. The subject of basic technology is to be offered in junior secondary schools. The relevance and importance of the subject calls for adequate exposure of students by the teachers to practical experience many of which are better demonstrated by the effective utilization of audio visual materials.           

Teaching/learning resources are instructional materials and devices through which teaching and learning are facilitated in schools (Agun et; 1997). Examples of teaching/learning materials include visual aids, audio aids, real objects and many others. Visual aids are designated materials that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come inform of, for example, wall-charts, illustrated pictures, pictorial materials and other two dimensional objects. There are also audio-visual aids. These are teaching machines like radio, television and radio programmes provide another useful teaching/learning material. Films, like wise, all sorts of projectors with sound attributes. Television and radio are popular teaching /learning material. In addition to helping students remember important information, teaching/learning resources(audio visual material) have other advantages. When properly used they help gain and hold the attention of students. Audio or visual aids can be useful in supporting a topic, and the combination of both audio and visual stimuli is particularly effective since the two most important sense are involved (Burrow, 1986). Clearly, a major goal of all teaching is for the student to be able to retain as much knowledge of the subject as possible, especially the key point. Numerous studies have attempted to determine how well audio/visual aids materials serve this purpose. Indications from the studies vary greatly from modest result which show 10-15 percent increase in retention to more optimistic result in which retention is increase by as much as 80 percent (Burrow, 1986).

Good audio/visual aids materials can help solve certain language barrier problem as they provide accurate visual image and make learning easier for the student (Checko, 1981). Another use of audio/visual aids materials is to clarify the relationship between material objects and concepts to understand. Symbols, graphs, and diagrams can also show relationships of location, size, time frequency and value. By symbolizing the factors involved, it is even possible to visualize abstract relationship.

Instructional aids have no value in the learning process if they cannot be heard or seen. Recording of sounds and speeches should be tested for correct volume and quality in the actual environment in which they will be used (Chorley, 1966). Visual aids must be visible to the entire class. All lettering and illustration must be large enough to be seen easily by the students farthest from the aids. Colours, when used should provide clear contrast and easily be visible.

The usefulness of aids can be improved by proper sequencing to build on previous learning. Frequently, good organization and natural patterns of logic dictate the sequence. However, use of standardized materials, including a syllabus is recommended. Sequencing also can be enhanced simply by using overlays on transparences, stripping techniques on chart and chalk or maker boards and by imaginative use of magnetic board. Sequencing can be emphasized and made clearer by the use of contrasting colours (Chorley, 1966).

The effectiveness of aids and the ease of their preparation can be increased by initially planning them in rough draft form. Revision and alterations are easier to make at that time than after their completion. The rough draft should be carefully checked for technical accuracy, proper terminology, grammar, spelling basic balance, clarity and simplicity. Audio Visual aids should be reviewed to determine whether their use is feasible in the training environment and whether they are appropriate for the students.

It is interesting to note that a large percentage of trained teachers and those undergoing professional training courses can teach with some of the audio visual materials. They do so consciously because they know. The use have positive effect on learning outcomes as their cognate experiences during teaching practice supervision reveals (Moris, 1968). Making and using audio/visual aids materials is an important aspect of good teaching. Even in classrooms with few resources teachers can use locally available resources to improve pupil learning. Learning takes place in an exciting and active environment.

The mere use of these materials however, does not guarantee effective communication, or effective teaching. It is their careful selection and skillful handling of audio/visual aids materials by the teacher that renders them useful in facilitating learning (Brown, 1982). It is therefore, important for teachers especially at the beginning to become familiar with the various types of instructional materials as well as the values that can be derived from their proper use. This study therefore investigated the availability and use of audio/visual material in the teaching and learning of Basic Technology in secondary schools in Kaduna state.

Statement of the problem

The teaching of basic technology in the lower arm of the secondary school requires to be lively and interesting full of illustrations, practical demonstrations and experiments. All these can only be done where there is availability in terms of audio-visual materials and their effective usage. Audio-visual materials make teaching easier and also reinforces learning on the part of the students.

The fact that most of these essential learning materials are inadequate coupled with the insufficient skills to utilize them by the teachers of basic technology in junior secondary schools, makes teaching learning in this particular area difficult and mostly ineffective.

The teaching of basic technology needs to be enriched with variety of audio-visual materials so as to make learning real, as it is a subject that involves various instruments, tools, materials and equipments. The insufficient  number of audio-visual materials and the ineffective utilization of theses materials may be responsible for the low level of interest and hence low level of performance of students in basic technology in junior secondary schools. Therefore in order to improve the teaching learning process with respect to basic technology, there is need to conduct an assessment on the utilization of audio visual materials in teaching basic technology in secondary schools in Kaduna state.

Purpose of study

The major purpose of the study is to assess the utilization of audio visual materials in teaching basic technology in secondary schools in  Kaduna state

Specifically, the study will determine;

1.                 Determine the possible sources of audio visual materials for the teaching of basic technology in junior secondary schools in Kaduna south.

2.                 Find out the ways audio visual materials for the teaching of basic technology are maintained by school administrators/teachers in junior secondary schools in Kaduna South.

3.                 Determine the extent to which audio visual materials properly used in the teaching of basic technology in secondary schools in Kaduna South.

Significance of the study

The findings of this study will be benefit to school administration, education officials, teachers, curriculum planners and students.

The, study will assist school administrative and education officials in recognizing effective Audio visual materials and ways of organizing and using them.

The findings will be of benefit to teachers to teachers to improve their skills of choosing, creating and effectively using audio visual materials.

The   findings   of  this   study   might   help   curriculum   planners   and   school administrators   with  recommendation  that   could   improve   the provision   and accessibility of audio visual materials for the teaching of Basic technology in secondary schools in Kaduna state.

Research question

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study

1.                 What are the sources of audio visual for the teaching of basic technology in junior secondary schools in Kaduna south?

2.                 In what ways are audio visual materials for the teaching of basic technology by school administrators/teachers in junior secondary schools in Kaduna south?

3.                 To what extent are audio visual materials properly used in the teaching of basic technology in secondary schools in Kaduna South?

Delimitation of the study

The study restricted to junior secondary in Kaduna metropolis involves only junior secondary school pupils. The study is also delimited to audio visual materials for the teaching of basic technology.

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