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Title page                                                                                         i

Declaration                                                                                                ii

Approval page                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                       iv

Acknowledgement                                                                          v

Table of contents                                                                                     vi

Abstract                                                                                           ix      


Background of the study                                                                1

Statement of problem                                                                     3

Purpose of the study                                                                      4

Research questions                                                                       5

Significance of the study                                                               5

Delimitation of the study                                                                6      


The concept of Metal Work                                                  7      

Students related factors affecting their performance in

Metal Work                                                                             9

Teacher     related     factors     affecting  students

performance in Metal Work.                                                 11              

Environmental factors affecting students

performance in Metal Work.                                                 16

Strategies to be adopted for improving student's

performance in Metal Work                                                  19    

Summary of related literature review                                            21.


Research Design                                                                                     24

Area of the study                                                                                      24

Population of the study                                                                            25

Sample and sampling techniques                                                25

Instrument for data collection                                                        25

Validation of the instrument                                                                    26

Reliability of the instrument                                                           26

Methods of data analysis                                                              27


Finding of the study                                                                        33

Discussion of the findings                                                             37


Restatement of the problem                                                                   44

Major findings of the study                                                            45

Conclusion                                                                                                47

Summary of procedure used                                                                  48

Recommendations                                                                         49

Limitations of the study                                                                            50

Suggestions for further study                                                                 51

References                                                                                               52


The study was conducted to find out factors affecting students performance in Metal Work in federal colleges of education (technical) in the north­western states of Nigeria. Four research question were used to guide the study. A survey research design was used for this study. A proportional stratified sample techniques was adopted for this study. The findings of the study revealed that factors such as students interest, improper practice, inappropriate use of drawing instruments, students preference to subject, attitudes, intellectual ability and poor Metal Work foundations were agreed as students related factors affecting their performance in Metal Work. Teachers related factors such as inadequate supervision and guidance, teachers attitude to students, absence of demonstration method and poor student/teacher relationship. Factors such as inadequate instructional material, large class size, parents economic status, lack of drawing instruments, obsolete drawing instruments and textbooks, inadequate drawing studios and inadequate time -allotted to Metal Work class were regarded as environmental related factors affecting students performance in Metal Work. Consequently, the study recommended strategies to be adopted to improve students’ performance in Metal Work, such as more qualified teachers provision of modern drawing studio. Appropriate and more time to be allotted on the time table.       



Background of the study

There is an increasing concern towards the academic performance of students recent years. One reason for this has been the general cry-out about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria. Sanusi (1993) identified that, inadequate equipment and tools supplied by the Federal Government are air embodiment of the problems responsible for student’s poor performance. He further posits that poor installation and obsolete equipment could also affect performance in exams. Fagbemi (1999) attributed this phenomenon to many reasons among which could be poor policies formulated by the government, teachers inadequacies, and ineffectiveness, unwillingness of the student to linear and poor funding.

Background of the study

Technical Colleges in Nigeria have been training people to become craftsmen and technicians. Training qualifies them for jobs both in public and private sectors of the economy. Both sectors, according to Ndomi (2005), require well trained and competent technicians who can operate and maintain the available technical equipment. According to Nigeria Policy on Education (NPE) (2004), Technical Education is that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical skills in wood furniture construction, interior decoration, carpentry and joinery etc, as well as basic scientific knowledge. Therefore, there is an ardent need for qualitative Technical College for acquiring the desired knowledge (education) and training to produce graduates that can perform competently in their chosen vocation without a need for pre-employment training. The major goal of vocational institutions is to prepare students for successful employment in the labor market (Finch and Crunkilton (1999). This condition can be met through a curriculum that is relevant and comprehensive with relevant training facilities. School workshops offer opportunities for practical training of students in skills acquisition in their technical trade areas for future development of the key sector of the economy in order to meet the basic needs of electricity, roads, and machinery among others. Students’ practical projects in Woodwork, furniture construction, carpentry and joinery are an important part of the curriculum in Technical Colleges, but a supportive school environment is a fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of the curriculum (Bybee and Loucks – Horsely, 2000; Penny and Fox, 1997). This aspect of the curriculum can only be implemented where facilities in the workshop are adequate and relevant. Availability of appropriate facilities enhance student learning by allowing them to be involved in demonstrations, and practice will continue to build their skills. According to Leighbody and Kidd (1968), there are certain things the trainer or teacher must do as well as the student which may involve careful planning of his activities for effective learning.

Okereke (1999) posit that, the quality of an education is properly defined by the Performance of its students and graduates. This in practice is measured by input and output. Therefore, achieving intended learning outcomes can some times be blamed on both teachers and students; this can be substantiated by Tafida (1997), who opined that effective teaching and learning of Metal Work generally depends on the attitude exhibited by both teachers and the students taught.

Mean while, records available indicates student's poor performance on Metal Work as approved in Academic Board Meetings of Federal Colleges of Education (Technical) Bichi and Gusati In Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, records showed that there is 62.50% of poor performance in Metal Work and 37.50% of good performance rate on 2004/2005 academic session. In 2005/06 academic session, there is 60.75% of poor performance on Technical/Engineering Drawing and 39.25% of quality performance rate. Moreover, there is higher rate of poor performance in Metal Work in 2006/2007 academic session in Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi where there is about 60 o of poor performance and 40% of good performance rate. In the same vein, records available in Federal College of Education (Technical) Gusau indicates poor performance on Metal Work, where it shows that there is 83.43% of poor performance rate and 16.67% of quality performance rate in 2005/2006 academic session, and 72% of poor performance rate and 28% of good performance rate in 2006/2007 academic session.

Statement of problem

Students performance in Metal Work is poor, Njeribiako (1981), blamed it on ineffectiveness of the teacher, inadequate drawing equipment and facilities as the major factors affecting students performance in the subject. Fagbemi (1999) blamed poor performance on poor funding and lack of students interest. However, information has not been elicited on environmental factor on students performance and strategies to be adopted to improve students performance in Metal Work. These factors if left untouched will remain a problem in achieving quality performance in Metal Work. Therefore, the issue which arises for this study is "what are the factors affecting students performance in Metal Work in Federal Colleges of Education (Technical) in North-Western states of Nigeria?

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study was to ascertain factors affecting students' performance in Metal Work, specifically the study seeks to:-

1.             Identify   the    students    related    factors    that    affects    their performance the Metal Work.

2.             Find   out   teacher   related   factors affecting   students performance in Metal Work.

3.             Identify the environmental related factors affecting students performance in Metal Work.

4.             Find out strategies to  be  adopted for improving  students performance in Metal Work.

Research questions

This study was guided by the following research questions based on the problems and purpose of the study.

1.      What   are   the   students    related    factors    affecting    their performance in Metal Work?

2.      What   are   the   teacher   related   factors   affecting   students performance in Metal Work?

3.      What are the environmental related factors affecting students performance in Metal Work?

4.      What are the strategies to be adopted to improve students' performance in Metal Work?

Significance of the study

The findings of this study will benefit the society as it exposes those -factors affecting students’ performance in Metal Work. These factors are students, teachers, environmental and infrastructure related factors affecting students’ performance.

The school will also benefit from the findings of this study as it reveals areas of strength and weaknesses as related to teachers, students and infrastructure, and the need to address those factors. Factors such  as  infrastructural  and teacher related factors and  need to address the problems positively.

The teachers of Metal Work will find the results of this study useful as it reveals their strength and weakness in the teaching learning situation which may help them to improve the teaching method.

The students of technical education will also benefit from the findings of this study, as it reveals their areas of weakness in learning technical    drawing.

Delimitation of the study

This research was aimed at pointing out the main factors affecting the performance of students in Metal Work in federal colleges of education (technical) located in the North-western Nigeria, that is federal college of education (technical), Bichi, of Kano State and Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau of Zamfara State.

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