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This project examined the sociolinguistics Analysis of Language Used in Nigerian Markets: Implication of Language Education Policy in Sokoto metropolis in Sokoto North. Data collected were subjected to the descriptive analysis and sociolinguistics elements in the market discourse were pointed out. The data were obtained through questionnaire administered in the selected markets in Sokoto metropolis. Two markets were randomly selected for this research, questionnaire were administered to the respondents and the buyers and sellers responded to fifteen (15) point questionnaire respectively which formed the data analysis and discussion in the project, and the researchers was able to find out some valid factors. Finally, the scores of the respondents to the questionnaire were subjected to statistical analysis using tabulation and descriptive techniques which involve the comparison of frequencies of response were expressed as percentage of total frequency. Investigation revealed that approximately 53% of the sellers are using Hausa, English and Pidgin language to reach the suppliers of their goals and thereby developed more interest in it. Majority of the buyers that were randomly
selected indicated that they find it very difficult to understand each others, because they are not speaking the same language, while some find it easier. For instance 25% are using Hausa language to communicate in the markets while 17% are using English language and 11% are using Pidgin while 47% are using other languages.
The research concluded that those who are literate individual among the buyers and the sellers should be given encourage to put more effort on the speaking of English and Pidgin language most of the time, while parent, educational policy markers, society and community should support the government to established Adult literacy servicer and awareness should be given to the buyers able the sellers in the markets to attend this programme after come back from the markets etc. In addition the teacher to be employed should not based on qualifications alone, but on their interest and competence of being able to speak fluent and teach them in fluent manner, making use of appropriate instructional materials.
1.1 . BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
According to Wikipedia, a market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services (including labour) in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is a place where prices of goods and services are established. For a market to be competitive there must be more than a single buyer or seller. It has been suggested that two people may trade, but it takes at least three persons to have a market, so that there is competition in at least one of its two sides.
A market brings together people from different socio-cultural backgrounds for the purpose of business transaction. In a bid to buy and sell goods, marketers tend to communicate using a language (Odebode, 2012). There are two roles in markets, buying and selling. Markets allow any tradable item to be evaluated and priced. A market emerges more or less spontaneously or may be constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights (of ownership) of services and goods.
Markets vary in form, scale (volume and geographical reach), location, and types of participants, as well as in types of goods and services traded in. Examples include:
· Physical retail markets, such as local farmers' markets (which are usually held in town squares or parking lots on an ongoing or occasional basis), shopping centers, market restaurants, and shopping malls
· (Non-physical) internet markets
· Ad hoc auction markets
· Markets for intermediate goods used in production of other goods and services
· Labor markets
· Artificial markets created by regulation to exchange rights for derivatives that have been designed to ameliorate externalities,
such as pollution permits.
In addition, another classification or types of market as stated in the Wikipedia retrieved on (22/11/2013) are depicted herein:
On the basis of Place, market is classified into:
1. Local Market or Regional Market.
2. National Market or Countrywide Market.
3. International Market or Global Market. On the basis of Time, market is classified into:
1. Very Short Period Market.
2. Short Period Market.
3. Long Period Market.
4. Very Long Period Market.
On the basis of Competition, market is classified into:
1. Perfectly competitive market structure.
2. Imperfectly competitive market structure.
The above market structures differ widely from each other in respect of their features, price etc. Under imperfect competition, there are different forms of markets like monopoly, duopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition.
Usually, Market means a place where buyers and sellers meet in order to carry on transactions of goods and services. Thus, the focus of the present study is the first category of market. i.e. physical market attempts to analyze the sociolinguistic issues in kasuwagandu (shehu shagari market) and kasuwa dankura (magi market) sokoto, Nigeria. The study focused the social and language contact that occur during the face to face contact of buyers and sellers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A closer view of the languages used in markets may reveal that they are persuasive, vocative or emotive. We may as well discover that such marketing languages contain metaphoric and euphemistic expressions. Finally, we may find some of the buyers and sellers code switch and code mixing in the course of haggling this is why our preoccupation in this study is to unravel and identify the sociolinguistic issues that accrue in the language of marketing in sokoto markets, a metropolitan city in Nigeria. Adeyanju (2002).Noted that the task before
a sociolinguist is to investigate and describe features of language or verbal interaction peculiar to each identified social class. Since the social situation is the most powerful determinant of verbal behaviour (Adeyanju, 2002) .In a nutshell, the research sought to present a content analysis of language of interaction in the market from the perspective of sociolinguistics.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The specific purpose of this study was to carry out a study on the sociolinguistic analysis of language of interaction in the market. Specifically, the objective of the study is to:
1. Identify the sociolinguistic strategies such as bilingualism/ multilingualism and code switching and mixing.
2. Also the study presents a real life examples of bilingual speech manifestations providing background information about the bilingual developments of people under examination
3. Investigate how sociolinguistic variables like age, gender, social class, occupation, regional grouping etc. affect their language use in the market.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
However, the research work intends to seek answers to the following questions:
1. What are those factors that dictate the form of exchange in market communication?
2. Ascertain the orders of transactions and communications between the sellers and the buyers?
3. Assess the sociolinguistics aspects in the discourse among the sellers and buyers within the Sokoto markets in Nigeria?
4. What is the implication of language used in the markets on Language Education Policy?
1.5 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The geographical location of the study would be Sokoto markets in Nigeria. The choice of Sokoto markets was due to its vibrant contributions to socio-economic and linguistic developments. It is also believed that data from market is useful because a market is an ideal place for different languages and their varieties to come into contact thus presenting a multilingual setting with its attendant consequences. The variables to be investigated in the study include the sociolinguistic factors of gender, nationality, ethnicity, geographical origins and social class. As a result of this,some selected markets in sokoto metropolis are used.
i. Kasuwagandu (shehu shagari market)
ii. Kasuwa dankura (magi market)
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of this study would benefit students most especially those specializing in sociolinguistics. It would also benefit teachers, policy makers and other stakeholders in the practice of education. Interaction and communication involve transmission of information from the speaker to the hearer. Effective communication requires that the interlocutors must share certain background information, if not, communication breakdown may occur. This study analyzed some factors inhibiting interacting in the market most especially those that has to do with sociolinguistics. An analysis of language use in a sales setting allows us to examine the interactional skills and processes involved in selling and consumption. It is the hope of the researcher that an analysis of the multilingual speech behaviour will give an insight into the problems of different linguistic groups and individuals and thus assist in Language planning and in educational policies especially with regards to language in education.
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