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1.1      Background of the study

 In the past in Christian society, it was assumed that the young unmarried people (under graduates and youths) should not be troubled by sex problems in that they would not all thoughts of sex out of their minds. But the youths of today are very anxious about themselves and all that affects their life. Sometimes they ask certain questions about themselves which required parents’ response.  In the traditional African setting, it was a widely held belief among parents that the best way of preventing sexual immorality among youths was to shield them from discussions pertaining to sex matters. For girls, some anxious mothers might only issue one or two warnings about their menstruation experiences but for boys, they were kept in total black out of discussions on sex matters. However with the awareness created by western education, there appears to be emerging, a new belief and attitude among parents towards sex matters. This emergent belief and attitude is characterized by greater openness and permissiveness about sexual matters and has given rise to sexual promiscuity. Alluding to this emergent belief and attitude, Ochiagha (1990) opined that, this era has witnessed an almost revolutionary attitude towards sexuality and sexual activity. Individuals, in more recent times, tend to be more open and permissive in their views about premarital sex, extra-marital sex, homosexuality, separation, divorce etc. The use of contraceptives that has generated a great deal of controversy among the youths, families, state and nation is now a major issue in sexuality education. Sexuality is an important aspect of the life of human beings and almost all the people including children want to know about it (Anyaebgunam, 2006). About 50% of the world’s population is under the age of 20 years and are at the highest risk of sexual and reproductive health problems, thus making sexuality the root of most sexual and reproductive health problems (Briggs, 1999). According to National Aids and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Control Programme (2006), 63% of all new HIV infections in Nigeria are among youths within 15 to 24 years and abortion is one of the consequences of insufficient information about HIV. The increasing population of adolescents in our society with inadequate information about sex education is witnessing an unprecedented “wound” in traditional rules and norms and behavioural controls, (Jinadu and Odesammi, 1993). The outcome of such a scenario is rampant rape, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Human Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and increasing number of multiple sexual partners (CDC, 2007 and Kingdom, 2010). Adolescent stage which corresponds to the period 10-17 years is associated with sexual development from the first appearance of secondary sex characteristics to sexual and reproductive maturity. This is accompanied by the development of adult mental process, adult identity as well as socio-economic dependence to total independent life (World Health Organization WHO, 1995). During early adolescence, many experience a new uncertainty about their bodies and how they function (Nnachi, 2008). As time progresses, some feel confused about what they are supposed to do in a number of circumstances making sense of evolving relationship with family and peers. Hence adolescents tend to be rebellious against social and family norms of behaviour which are divergent to their sexual feelings and desires (Nnachi, 2008). Therefore, this may result in early sexual initiation, unprotected sexual activities and multiple partners. To this effect, adolescents need accurate and necessary information to enable them understand the new changes in their body and how to adapt and adjust to such changes. This underscores the need for sexuality education for secondary school students who are at the adolescent stage. According to Ochiagha (2007), sexuality education is a programmed package for equipping individuals with appropriate knowledge, information and skills, that would enable them to understand and handle their sexuality personally and in relation to others. Adolescents must be made to understand the basic truths about their maleness and femaleness and their implications. Oyekan (2008) is of the opinion that sexuality education in the secular world is ‘teaching the youths about their bodies, how to respect each other, how to abstain from sex and how to protect themselves if they decide to have sex. It is a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs and values about identity relationships and intimacy.  They equally ask questions based on films they watch, television programmes and the magazine they read. Blanet (2001) states that it has now been realized that it is much better for senior secondary students to acknowledge the faith that  they have sexual desire and recognize that it is entirely natural. Any problem that arises as a result can be dealt with more effectively than when children are deprived of the sex education and what it presents. Sex education affects and helps children to develop into effective family members. Sex education provides factual knowledge essentials to the features of anatomy and physiology of human and animal reproduction which every educated person wishes to know. An American school of health association committee (2000) once added that sex education, social economic and physiological phases of human relations who they are affected by male and female relationship. It also emphasized attitude development and related to association between the sexes. Siens (2004) also explains that sex education which teaches the young persons what he/she should know for his/her personal conduct and relationship with others. The study area is situated in the senior secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. Sexuality education is a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs and values about gender towards building a strong foundation for sexual health. All theories of adolescent development give sexuality a central role in negotiating the transition from child to adult. Sexuality education takes place on a daily basis in homes, schools, faithbased institutions, and through the media [1]. In a study of the perception of sexuality education among secondary school students in Kwara State, (1) found out that the respondents had no knowledge of sex education, either from parents or teachers. They agreed that knowledge of sexuality education will be very helpful and therefore should be introduced into the secondary school system. Sexuality Education in secondary schools is about enabling students to understand the physiological, social and emotional changes they experience as they mature, develop healthy and rewarding relationships including those with members of the opposite sex and make wise, informed and responsible decisions on sexuality issues. It is premised on the importance of the family as the basic unit of society. This means encouraging healthy, heterosexual marriages and stable nuclear family units with extended family support. The teaching and learning of Sexuality Education is based on respect for the values and beliefs of the different ethic and religious communities in Nigeria on sexuality issues (Ministry of Health (MOH) and Registry of Births and Death (RGD), [2]. It has been observed that parents sometimes lack sufficient knowledge and interest in issues of sexuality education as it relates to their adolescent children in secondary schools. This accounts for many sexual related misconducts that we find in children. [3] Whose position supports the above idea states that most parents around the world and Nigeria in particular, react very negatively to the idea of sex education. This idea frustrates the idea of fully introducing and implementing the curriculum for sex education in secondary schools. Further more, some parents try to evade or they do not give satisfactory answers to questions asked by children in relation to sex education The role of teachers in ensuring the effectiveness of sexuality education in secondary schools is very important. However it has been observed that some teachers attitude towards sex education have not been very supportive. While some lack necessary skills for imparting the knowledge, some others out rightly become very passive towards it implementation. This is supported by the position of [6,7] who states that teachers who teach sexuality education are either passive or they present the subject matter of sex education within a wider context that it looses its focus at the end of the day. In a study by [8] found out that teachers were unwilling to participate in sex education for their students for various reasons which include risk of exposure to issues of sexuality, and the tendency to become promiscuous as a result of the knowledge of sexuality. Others reasons where the age the of the teachers and their religious orientations which creates varied disposition towards the subject matter of sexuality education. This perceived unwillingness on the teachers is a great obstacle to the main objectives of sex education. The goals of Sexuality Education are to help students make wise, responsible and informed decisions through the provision of accurate, current and age-appropriate knowledge on human sexuality and the consequence of sexual activities. It is also to help students know themselves and build healthy and rewarding relationships through the acquisition of social and emotional skills of self awareness, management of their thoughts, feelings and behaviours. It also includes development of empathy for other Sexuality education is a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs and values about gender towards building a strong foundation for sexual health. All theories of adolescent development give sexuality a central role in negotiating the transition from child to adult. Sexuality education takes place on a daily basis in homes, schools, faith-based institutions, and through the media.s, possession of effective communication, problem-solving and decision-making skills. Sexuality education is also meant to help students develop a moral consciousness, respect for themselves and for others as sexual beings. This is premised on the family values derived from a healthy, heterosexual marriage as the origin of family which constitute the basic unit of society. This comes with the inculcation of positive mainstreams values and attitudes about sexuality.  Ovia North East Local Government Area is made of different tribes such as Binis, Ijaws etc. educationally, the studied area is not lacking behind. Today it has about 28 secondary schools which include Ezomo College Ora, Ebomisi Secondary School, Utekon Secondary School, Iguedaken Secondary School etc. and each of these schools is subdivided into school one and two.


The teaching of sex education in our senior secondary schools is very important for both male and female students. But the topic has not be viewed from the right perspective as it ought to be in schools, cases of sex experiment, free married sex, early marriage, unwanted pregnancy, distortion, abortion and termination of unwanted pregnancies; these are becoming very rampant among our students in the senior secondary schools of study in particular and Edo State in general. This study is therefore trying to find out the effect of sex education in senior secondary schools.


In the light of the above stated problems, the study therefore seeks to identify the effect of sex education in senior secondary schools and enumerate the rationale behind it. 


It is of great importance to note that at the end of this research work, various senior secondary schools, communities, towns, states and our country in general will find the result of this research work will play an essential role in the standard of education and in the task of economic growth and development in the life of senior secondary students. The result from this research work will also provide an ample opportunity for preventing their children from being engaged in unguided sexual relationship. The significance of this study is to reveal the often to which sex education has deeps into the fabric of our senior secondary schools students most especially in Edo State; to discover the forms, causes, effects and consequences of sexual relationship. Also students been enlighten will then preserve the norms and values of the society and the ethnics of sex education.


Since research work is meant to tell the validity of assumptions, the following questions are thereby stated for the purpose of this study

1.     Do you have knowledge of sex education?

2.     Does the cultural and religions background affect the sex education in schools

3.     What effect sex educations have on our schools?


To aid the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: Sex education does not have any effect on the academic performance of secondary school student

H1: Sex education does have an effect on the academic performance of secondary school student

H02: there is no significant relationship between sex education and student morality

H2: there is no significant relationship between sex education and student morality


This research work is carried out to find the effects of sex education on senior secondary schools students. This work is only confined to the senior secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State meanwhile, the study of sex education is a highly diversified one hence the particular study is narrowed down to determine the reasons and mode of sex education and its effects on the senior secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.


          The following terms are defined as used in this study so as to enhance easy understanding.

Effect: The impact that some thing creates.

Sex: difference between male and female

Education: Is the systematic training and instruction especially of young ones in schools.

Distorted: Denoted false impression about view of life

Diversified: To cover a very wide range

Free married: engaging in activities before marriage


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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