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This study is on an evaluation of principals administrative in Nigeria secondary schools in Nigeria. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Uyo, Akwa Ibom state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior officers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies



1.1      Background of the study

Secondary education’s general goals of concocting people for suitable living in the society and for higher education have made it imperious that it should, among others, supply trained manpower in the applied science, technology and commerce at sub-professional levels; inspire its students with the desire for self-improvement and achievement of excellence; raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others; and respect the dignity of labour (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). One major step in the achievement of these goals is the enrolment of students into secondary schools where they are exposed to experiences necessary to achieve these objectives.


It has been observed by some scholars that many principals in Anambra State do not devote much time and effort in planning of school activities as evidenced by hasty organization of programmes such as teachers’ forum and Parents Teachers Association meetings. Incidence of role conflicts, duplication of functions and general lack of direction in task performance have also been reported (Onuh, 2008; Egboka, 2008). With these problems, wastages in the use of resources, poor academic performance of students and poor Parents Teachers Association involvement in school administration are likely to persist. Incidentally, selection of principals based on teaching experience and not on administrative qualification has been alleged to contribute to the inefficiency and lapses found in the secondary schools. Some scholars contend that several teachers that were promoted to principals were later regarded as incompetent principals they lacked the required skills to carry duties relevant to their post. Areas they were found have deficit in skill were in working with high officials (State School Board or Ministry of Education) and in dealing with student body. These result in administrative problems (Obilade, 1986; Arikewuyo, 2009). The Nationwide diagnosis of Nigerian education sector also showed that greater proportion of secondary school principals do not have the necessary administrative strategies/tools such as vision and mission statement, code of conduct for students (rules and regulations), year activity calendar, code of conduct for teachers, school strategic plans, in-house teacher’s development activities and students’ target setting (Federal Ministry of Education, 2005). These situations could be as a result of the principals’ lack of competencies needed to carry out administrative responsibilities, or that they do not apply the acquired competencies. In view of these, this work is interested in identifying competencies that are essential for administrative effectiveness and examining the extent secondary school principals possess and apply the identified essential competencies.


This study aimed at identifying essential competencies and examining secondary school principals’ administrative effectiveness in Anambra State. Specifically, the study was concerned with:

1. Identifying the competencies considered to be essential for principals’ administrative effectiveness

2.   examining the extent school principals possess the identified essential competencies

3.   Ascertaining the extent school principals apply the identified essential competencies.

5.   Identifying likely factors that affect principals’ application of the competencies.

6.   finding out whether discrepancies exist between principals’ possession and application of the identified competencies essential for administrative effectiveness


For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher; 

H0:  there are no factors that affect principals’ application of the competencies.

H1: there are factors that affect principals’ application of the competencies.

H02: competencies are not essential for principals’ administrative effectiveness.

H2: competencies are essential for principals’ administrative effectiveness


The study will give clear insight on an evaluation of principals administrative in Nigeria secondary schools. The study will beneficial to educational sector and principals as well. The study will identifying the competencies considered to be essential for principals’ administrative effectiveness.  The study will serve as reference to other researchers that wants to embark on this topic


The scope of the study covers an evaluation of principals administrative in Nigeria secondary school. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

 a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study     

b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities


PRINCIPAL: The head teacher, headmaster, headmistress, head, chancellor, principal or school director is the teacher with the greatest responsibility for the management of a school, college

ADMINISTRATIVE: Relating to the running of a business, organization, etc

SECONDARY SCHOOL:secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study 

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