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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The importance of monetary policy in the economic development of developing countries has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. The perverse effect of interest rate controls, overvalued exchange rates, controlled lending and other control variables have led to a large volume of research relating to monetary policy. An open and well unregulated monetary policy promotes economic growth and stability. In the current setting with a rapidly globalizing world economy, efficient monetary policy are essential for productive gains from the world market and to protect the domestic economy against foreign shocks.
In attempt to create and provide better living conditions for the populace, various government have embarked in the use of policies (fiscal and monetary) to control economic variables that facilitate growth and development. The focus of this study shall be to examine the impact of monetary policy on commercial bank lending in Nigeria.
Monetary policy in the art of controlling the direction and movement of money and credit facilities in pursuance of stable price and economic growth in an economy (CBN 1998). It is the major economic stabilization weapon, which involve measures designed to regulate and control the volume, cost, availability and direction of money and credit in an economy to achieve some specified macroeconomic policy objective. That is, it is a deliberate effort by the monetary authorities (the Central Bank) to control the money supply and credit condition for the purpose of achieving certain broad economic objective. The Central Bank of Nigeria has an important role to play by regulating the stock of money in such a way as to promote the social welfare (Ajayi 1999).
Monetary policy in Nigeria over years has been the combination of measures taken by this monetary authority to influence directly or indirectly or both, the supply of money and credit to the economy and the structure of interest rates with a view to achieving a sustainable rate of economic growth, price stability and balance of payment equilibrium. Although Monetary Policy has been conducted under wide ranging economic environments, the strategy has remained the same. However, the relevant target monetary policy has changed following rapid institution changes in the financial environment. Until the late 1980’s, narrow money stock was the focus of Central Bank of Nigeria Monetary Policy.
In the light of this, the assessment of the banks system (particularly in the area of loans and advances) can be evaluated through the performance of Monetary Policy tools, which can be broadly classified into two categories; the portfolio control approach and market intervention. Under the system of direct monetary control, the monetary authorities use some criteria to determine monetary and credit targets and interest rates which are the intermediate targets to attempt to achieve the ultimate objectives of the policy. In the regime of indirect monetary control, because the intermediate variables are not under the control of Central Bank of Nigeria, only the operating variables (Open Market Operation, Reserve Requirement and Discount Rate), which are related are to the path of intermediate variables in a predictable way are controlled and are the major techniques of influencing the monetary base.
By and large, the main purpose of this research work is to examine the impact of monetary policy on commercial bank lending in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite the use of several monetary policy tools, the volume of loans granted by the commercial banks to the Nigerian economy appears not to have improved as to accelerating investment, economic growth as well as economic development.
Central bank as the apex bank controls the activities of commercial banks through the formulation and issuance of monetary policy. Being CBN, the aim is to control and regulate the volume of money in circulation, which are therefore designed to achieve specific, desired social and economic goals. Despite the adoption of these measures, the achievement of the stated social economic goals has us so far.
Therefore, the good implementation, compliance, enforcement and achievement of the
monetary policy instrument of the Central Bank of Nigeria pose a problem to this research work. Thus, the impact of monetary policy on commercial bank lending in Nigeria as the study.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Our research questions for this study are as follows:
i) What is the effect of Minimum Rediscount Rate (MRR) on commercial bank lending in Nigeria?
ii) Has money supply any impact on commercial bank lending in Nigeria?
iii) What is the role of exchange rate on commercial bank loans and advances in Nigeria? iv) How has the liquidity ratio of commercial bank enhanced bank lending in Nigeria?
v) To what extent has cash reserve ratio of commercial bank influence its loans and advances.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this research work are as follows:
i) To critically examine and highlight the effect of Minimum Rediscount Rate (MRR) on commercial
bank lending in Nigeria.
ii) To ascertain the degree of impact money supply has on commercial bank lending in Nigeria. iii) To identify the roles of exchange rate on commercial bank loans and advances.
iv) To examine and identify the relationship between cash reserve ratio of commercial bank as it
affects its loans and advances.
v) To ascertain the extent of commercial bank liquidity ratio influence on bank lending.
1.5 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
Hypothesis is a tentative statement about phenomena whose validity is usually unknown (Onwumere, 2009: 25). For the purpose of this study, I shall put the following hypotheses to test:
i) Ho: Broad money supply does not increase the volume of commercial bank lending.
ii) Ho: Exchange rate has no effect on commercial bank lending.
iii) Ho: Interest rate has no positive effect on the volume of commercial bank loans.
iv) Ho: Liquidity ratio of commercial banks has no positive impact on the volume of its loans
v) Ho: Cash reserve ratio of commercial bank does not have a significant impact on bank
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research points at the impact of monetary policy on commercial bank lending as secured in our country Nigeria from the year 1975 to the year 2009.
The research interest is on First Bank of Nigeria Plc because it is one of the leading tier one banks in Nigeria and therefore useful for this research.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This work will be beneficial to the following:
1. The Banking Sector:
(a) The Central Bank: By this work, the various techniques and tools used to control commercial bank activities, especially the volume of loans and advances, over the years and their resultant effect would be brought to light. It would be easily possible to evaluate and appreciate the effectiveness of the monetary policy initiated by the Central Bank of Nigeria. The CBN by viewing this work will learn of its effectiveness and lapses vis-à-vis checking and controlling the commercial banks through the implementation of monetary policies. Other ways of implementing the monetary policies would be brought to light if there had been lapses in the policies, and possible remedial actions highlighted through which these lapses could be corrected.
(b) Financial Institutions: Other financial institution like commercial banks especially the bank under study, merchant banks, insurance houses etc. will find this research work helpful. The roles of the commercial bank in the implementation of monetary policies will be made clear in this work and as such, the institutions can learn of the optimum expectations of them by the Central Bank and the economic sector. Consequently, they will be able to make corrections and avoid errors.
2. The Government: The government is in overall control of the formulation and implementation of monetary policies with aim of controlling the economy at large. Therefore a critical analysis of this work would help the government in seeing ways of formulating policies and types of policies to be formulated so as to achieve the much desired goal of the economic growth and development. The government would learn from mistakes of the past which shall be enumerated in this work, thereby helping them formulate good and effective policies.
3. The Public: This work shall be useful to the economic watcher and the public in that, it will help them know of the existing economic trends of the time and how to fit in thereof.
4. Research Scholars: Academics in the search of knowledge would find this research work of tremendous value. Scholars would learn of the Central banks achievement resulting from the policy guidelines which formulates in order to stabilize the economy. This work would also act as a motivator to other researchers who would be geared towards widening their search for more facts concerning the effects or impacts of monetary policy on commercial bank lending in
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
For this study, the following terms will be defined for clarity.
i) Monetary policy: This is defined generally as the combination of measures designed to regulate the value, supply and cost of money in an economy.
ii) Open market operation: This could be defined as the prudence power of the central bank made to purchase or sell securities in the financial markets. iii) Liquidity squeeze: This is monetary contraction or mop-up. It is a situation where the level of fund (i.e loanable fund) is very low (Okpara, 1997:51, 54, 55).
iv) Legal Reserve Ratio: This is a quantitative instrument used by the Central Bank to control and regulate the cash or the reserve of banks.
v) Interest Rate: This is that rate at which the Central Bank as the lender of last resort charges the commercial banks on loans extended to them.
Ajayi, I (1999). “Evolution and functions of Central Banks”. Central Bank of Nigeria Economic
and Financial Review, 37(4): 11-12.
Anyanwu, F.A (2003) Public Finance Cremd Publishers. Owerri.
Okpara G.C (1997) Fundamental of Money and banking in Nigeria. Abakiliki: Willy Rose and Applied Publisher.
Onwumere, J.U.J (2009) Business & Economic Research, Methods. Enugu: Vougasen Limited.
The Central Bank of Nigeria “Monetary and credit guidelines for 1998 fiscal
year”, monetary policy circular No 26.
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