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Subsidyis any measure that keeps the prices consumers pay for a good or produce below market level for consumer or for producers. Subsidies take different forms,these include grants, tax reductions and exemptions or price controls. Others affect prices or cost indirectly such as regulations that skew the market price in favour of a particular fuel, government. Sponsored technology, or research and development. (R & O) Alozie (2009).
According to Eyiuche (2012) the federal government operated fuel subsidy with the aim of making petroleum products available to cushion the effect of actual market prices of the product on the general populace. The federal government during the military era was of the opinion that the cost of production, transportation of fuel will be so much a heavy burden for the poor masses of Nigerians to bear alone and therefore decided to pay part of the total amount of fuel cost for every Nigerian in order to make the product available and affordable. This is actually what is referred to as fuel subsidy that is the government paying part of the total amount of fuel cost. His intention of cushioning the effect of actual market price of fuel product actually worked for a period of time, say from 1973-1983. On March 31st 1986. Gen. Ibrahim Babangida increased the pump price of petrol form 20k to #39.5k. This was about 97.5% increment.
Sources have it that issues worsened with the advent to democracy. On June 1st, 2000 Chief OlusegunObasanjo increased the pump price of petrol from #20 to #30 (50% increment). Gradually, the aim of the military government that introduced fuel subsidy was subdued and defeated.
The benefits of fuel subsidy to the average Nigerian was short lived. The federal government claim to have spent over #1.4 trillion on fuel subsidy in the past five years. It also claimed to be paying heavily to subsidize kerosene which is imported into the country through the Nigerian National Petroleum corporation (NNPC), the fuel subsidy policy has also bred several unintended consequences and practices such as smuggling of petroleum products out of the country, the federal government also claimed that the fuel subsidy policy has made them unable to tackle problems of our collective infrastructure which are the roads, power, agriculture, fixing the refineries etc.Omoniji (2012).
Given the antecedents that most Nigerians have not benefited from fuel subsidy, several economists view subsidies as highly corrupt, wasteful and bled money from the treasury into the private pockets of rich fuel importers. As a result of this obvious reality, the federal government on January 1st 2012 dramatically announced the end of fuel subsidy. With the intention of using the money accrued from fuel subsidy to develop other sectors of the economy, and also to ensure sustainable develop and wealth generation for the nation. Onanuga (2012).
The removal of fuel subsidy by the Nigerian government raises lot of dust. It can be said to be the most talked about issue since the inception of democracy inNigeria. It can also be said that the subsidy will go down in history as one of the most unpopular policies ever imposed on Nigerians. The protest and war of words that the policy generated pointed out glaringly the mistrust Nigerians, most especially the youths have for the government due to years upon years of failed promises and unaccomplished government polices/programmes. Nigerians got a shocking New Year gift from the federal government on January 1st 2012. They found long queues at the filling stations where petrol was sold above #65 per litre. Fuel subsidy removal which the federal government under the leadership of President GoodluckEbele Jonathan has canvassed and lobbied for since he was sworn in last May 29, 2011 appeared to have finally got to the blast off stage. It was on Monday, December 12, 2011, that the National Economic Council headed by the Vice President NnmadiSambo decided that government should finally remove the subsidy come January 2012. The body consists of the vice president, governors, strategic ministers and central bank of Nigeria (CBN) claimed that subsidy removal had become inevitable to avert the collapse of Nigerian economy. Daily sun (2012:18).
The withdrawal of fuel subsidy by the federal government generated heated debates by Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) owing to its socio-economic implications on the nation’s economy. The prices of goods and services rose, the cost of transportation also rose drastically even commercial motorcycle instantly adjusted their fares as soon as the subsidy removal was announced. Many artisan like welders, aluminum window filters, tailors, who cannot afford power generators are today out of work, many Nigerian youths have taken to riding commercial motorcycle and tricycle while others went into street hawking just to keep body and soul together. The NLC and government workers went on strike which resulted the nation (Nigeria) to loose chose to $617 million daily, translating into about #100 billion, this removal also brought about mass poverty to Nigerians as the prices of goods and services increased while their income still remain constant, and also violent demonstration which distorted peace and tranquility in the country. Following the pronouncement, motorist who were traveling back to their various destinations after the New Year and Christmas celebrations were hit by sudden likes on petrol prices. Prices rose dramatically ranging between #140 and #150 per litre and at between #170 to #200 on the black market. Omoniji (2012: 4).
In the words of Kauffmann (2010: 128) subsidy removal as a programme enjoyed relative success with limited social stress, in others cases the exercise was deemed a failure. Elimination of subsidies on essential commodities like fuel has been known to precipitate social dislocation and in the extreme led to street riots and civil strike. Fuel subsidy removal programmes are sensitive to economy structure, level of development of the country, political system and the state of the economy. There is evidence that the more successful countries have taken a phase or gradual approach, have engage in conscientious research prior to implementation and followed a rigorous approach to policy making. The effective communication and fair level of trust between citizens and government
may be the other critical success factors in such an exercise. We examine Nigeria’s proposal for subsidy removal against this back drop.
The stake holders, unions and people made snide comments about the removal of fuel subsidy, they say that the policy is unconstitutional because the policy does not favour the poor masses, and they did not seek the consent of the people and their full support before implementing such policy. They also stated their view saying that subsidy removal is not the only means that the government can accrue or save money to develop other sectors of the economy.
Nigerians did not embrace the new policy of fuel subsidy removal by the federal government. On 1st of January 2012 when PresidentEbeleGoodluck Jonathan announced the fuel subsidy removal. Nigerians reacted negatively towards such policy. The Nigerian labour congress and government workers went on strike which made the nation (Nigeria) to lose a huge amount of money close to #100 billion naira. Emeh (2012).
The removal of fuel subsidy by the federal government also generated inflation in the country which bought about a high cost of fuel and other items in the market, not only did it bring about inflation, it was also accompanied with mass poverty because the price of goods and services increased while the income of people still remained constant. Nigerians were also traumatized by the new of the new policy and it also brought about violent demonstrations which distorted thepeace and tranquility of the country. It was these problems that prompted the researcher to carry a thorough research on the impact of fuel subsidy removal on the Nigerian economy.

The objective of this study is to look into fuel subsidy removal and the Nigerian economy, to achieve this, the researcher wishes

i)             To assess the rational for the removal of fuel subsidy by the federal government.

ii)           To assess what petrol subsidy removal portend for the Nigerian economy.

iii)          To assess the failure or success of the oil subsidy regime.

The following shall constitute a question for this research
1. Was the fuel subsidy regime useful to a majority of Nigerians?
2. Was the federal government reasonable in removing the subsidy on fuel?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the subsidy and the Nigerian economy?


The following are the significance of this study:

1.   The findings from this study will educate the Nigerian general public on the effect of fuel subsidy on the Nigerian economy. It will also enlighten the public on the pros and cons of fuel subsidy.

2.   This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

3.   The findings of this study will further serve as a research material to scholars who intent to embark on the subject of fuel subsidy in future.


Because of the vast nature of Nigeria, the researcher limited its study to Abakaliki local government area and its environs.
In this research work like every other purposeful act, it was met with many obstacles in the gathering of information the major problem encountered by the researcher is the limited time given within which to gather and analyse data because this topic is based on current issues in our society. Also the researcher was faced with the problem of finance as well as the negative attitude and non-cooperation of the respondents to give information to the researcher. Also, there is the problem of transportation from one place to another. Other problems include physical problems such as energy used in carrying out this work and it was carried out when normal school activities were on, the researcher devoted more time in order to meet up with the time limit for the submission of this work. Another problem the researcher encountered was lack of textbooks because this research work is a current issue in Nigeria, people have not written any text books on it, the researcher had to reach on journal, magazines, newspaper and the internet.


Fuel: A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion).

Fuel subsidy: Fuel subsidy is the money paid by the Federal Government of Nigeria to reduce the cost of refining petroleum products, especially fuel. The Federal Government has for some time now been selling the idea of fuel subsidy removal to Nigerians; making them to understand how immensely beneficial the removal be to all.

Economy: An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the productiondistribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents. Understood in its broadest sense, 'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources'. Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. Monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain.

Perception: Perception, for our purposes, means the ways individuals view issues, personalities, organizations, governments, etc. Although it is not usually obvious initially, perception is a powerful force in relating and dealing with others.

Credibility: credibility is a major issue in communication as it is hinged on the idea of believability. Over time, a communication source through consistent provision of believable and honest information, establishes a podium for his information to be readily acceptable.

Public Opinion: According to Best (1973) as cited by Blake Haroldson (1975 p.99) public opinion is more commonly regarded as “a mass phenomenon, as an aggregation and expression of individual opinions about a public concern, expressed in such a manner as to be perceived by public decision makers”.


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.     Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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