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The study examined the Impact of Information and Communication Technology on the workers in in Tertiary Academic Institutions in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study was set to examine the impact of Information and Communication Technology on record keeping, communication, monitoring and evaluation, staff development, maintenance of discipline, decision making process, maintenance of facilities, conducts of examinations and presentation of results in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State. Survey research method using questionnaire was adopted for the data gathering. The research sample consisted of Deans of faculty/School Directors, Heads of Departments, Directors of Management Information Service, Staff of Faculty/School, and total (100) respondents from the four selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state. Purposive sampling method was used in selecting the respondents. Data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and Likert scale. Findings from the study revealed that ICTs such as computers perform the role of aiding school administration and data management in the area of record keeping and retrieval with a mean of 3.91. However, respondents disagreed that through Circuit Camera Television (CCTV), the workers in in tertiary Institutions in Anambra State monitored and evaluated staff in the discharge of their duties with mean score of 2.05 which means that the workers in inthe four selected tertiary institutions did not ensure ICT compliance in monitoring and evaluation. However, the result also revealed respondents disagreed that through E- learning platform, the workers in this institutions developed staff capacity with mean score of 2.97. They also disagreed that through ICT facilities management encouraged the use of ICT support services for orientation of newly employed staff in the institutions with mean score of 2.94. This means that management are yet to utilize the potentials of ICT for staff development purpose. Eight null hypotheses were tested, out of which three (3) were retained while five (5) rejected. The study concludes, based on the hypotheses tested, that ICT has great impact on the smooth running of the tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State in respect of record keeping and retrieval, communication and staff development. The study recommends that the management should ensure ICT compliance to both academic and non-academic staff and students‟ for quality assurance of the tertiary institutions. Also, the management should encourage the application of ICT (such as computer) in examination conduct, script marking and result to be released on-line. This will ensure timely release of students‟ result and storage of data as well as ease staff workload.
1.1 Background of study
It is observed that more and more organizations in Nigeria are shifting towards ICT driven systems to enhance its effectiveness and competitiveness, such as computer education. Computers are device capable for data storage and processing. Computer technology are being used for financial, sending and receiving, emailing etc; however, almost every management activity in our tertiary institutions requires computer technology, that is why computer education becomes imperative in workers in in tertiary institutions. Ogunkola, (2008) opined that without computer education one cannot be able to make progress as far as his career options are concerned except it is matched with knowledge of computer technology. He further noted that ICT tool to be used in management and administration of institutions is the computer, together with basic software packages like MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, or the equivalent open source packages, and access to email and the internet. Computer has been described as an automatic electronic machine that performs calculation. It is capable of accepting data, and performing operation according to instruction (programme), and providing result of the operation with great speed and accuracy.
Management is the effective allocation and utilization of scarce resources to achieve predetermined results, the scarce resources include people, money, materials and time. Adejumo, (2000) described management as involving planning and innovation, coordination and supervision as well as undertaking risks and handling uncertainty. He argued that management is the activity of working with people in organizations in accomplishing results.
Therefore, workers in in tertiary institutions entails ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in the use of the available human, physical and financial resources together with the ability to combat any constraints that might hamper the achievement of the objectives in which computer education can aid in achieving the goal of institutional management.
Tertiary institutions are also known as higher education, in Nigeria it is that level of educational institution that provides education to individuals after post secondary education. National policy on education (2004) defines tertiary institution as the education given after secondary education in universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, and Mono techniques including those institutions offering correspondence courses. Tertiary institutions have been described as parastatals which award professional and non-professional certificates. They are involved in providing higher education opportunities.
Following series of complaints because of highly populated institutions with limited admission opportunities, in this present dispensation, individuals and organizations have been given the go-ahead to establish private tertiary institutions provided they comply with the standards. One is, therefore, not surprised that tertiary institutions have proliferated the country with 117 universities, 64 colleges of education and 43 Polytechnics as at 2011. The increase number of staff and students in our tertiary institutions in Nigeria calls for the provision of ICT facilities for record purposes. Okoli (2007, p. 524) classifies university records into two broad categories, namely management and administrative records. Management records are generated at the top management level (vice chancellor, deputies, bursar, librarian, and registrar) in the form of meeting records, procedures, decisions and resolutions. On the other hand, administrative records take the form of admission records, personnel records (employment, leave and duty records), and physical resource records. Note that the growing complexities of universities in Nigeria and the challenges pose to management affirmed the application of Hi-Tech information technology’s crucial for quality assurance (Okorie, Agabi & Uche, 2005).
Various studies revealed that using ICT will promote issues on students‟ admission, planning and computation of students‟ results, staff development, record keeping, communication, quality assurance and staffing, financial management and information dissemination will increase the efficiency of tertiary institutions if Information Communication and Technology facilities are adequately and properly utilized, Lawsent and Vincent-Loncrin (1995); Foray (2004); Omirin, (2007). Thus, in developing countries including Nigeria, the argument is no longer whether or not tertiary institutions should invest in ICT (OECD,2005).
Going by the institutional objectives, with man power shortage to properly handle students records and ICT facilities in Nigeria tertiary institutions, it is therefore paramount to assess the impact of ICT in the tertiary institutions in the area of data management and information dissemination.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is increase in student’s population in higher institutions which accelerated the need for ICTs to process, store and retrieve data in a fast, systemic and accurate fashion. The importance of e-administration in higher education is on the increase due to efficient electronic administration and handling of existing resources economically. The introduction of ICT in our educational sector aims at simplification of a lot of diversified management and administrative tasks. According to Sanat (2006), the use of ICT in higher educational institutions starts with the stages of receiving e-notifications regarding admission, course schedules, and billing procedures and continues till the end of the course including online publication of results. The Action Plan for reforms in the field of higher education revealed that the potential of Information Communication Technology (ICT) should be fully utilized (UNESCO 1998).
The main functional areas of e-administration in tertiary institutions are; Management Information System (MIS) which is a necessity in university administration, since it is required for need assessment, logistics and planning, resources utilization, operational control and management or evaluation of results, the second is financial management.
Therefore, ICT is supposed to be an integral part of the management process and its potential capacity in university administration will go a long way in ensuring institutional effectiveness. Computer-based MIS in the universities is used for the process of mechanized analysis, updating, storage, display and retrieval of sets of information, particularly those connected with the management and operational sides of administrative decisions. With all the mentioned potential of ICT most Nigerian tertiary institutions are yet to fully adapt to the use of ICT in the workers in intheir institutions.
However, there are still missing data‟s and results here and there due to inadequate record keeping; wastage of human material and time due to inadequate communication network; also lack of staff development and constraints of man power shortage to handle ICT facilities.
With respect to these problems, the study is interested in identifying the level of ICT impact and its contributions to the workers in tertiary institutions in Anambra state, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to examine the impact of computer education on the workers in tertiary institutions in Anambra state.
The specific objectives therefore, were to:
1. ascertain the impact of ICT on record keeping in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State;
2. identify the impact of ICT on communication in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State;
3. ascertain the impact of ICT on monitoring and evaluation in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State;
4. find out the impact of ICT on staff development in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State;
5. examine the impact of ICT on maintenance of discipline in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State;
6. determine the impact of ICT on decision making process by the workers in in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State;
7. assess the impact of ICT on maintenance of facilities in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State,and
8. find out the impact of ICT on the conduct of examinations and presentation of results in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State.
1.4 The Research Questions
The specific research questions are:
9. What is the impact of ICT on record keeping in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State?
10. In what way does ICT impact on communication in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State?
11. How does ICT impact on monitoring and evaluation in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State?
12. What is the impact of ICT on staff development in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State?
13. In what way does ICT impact on maintenance of discipline on workers in in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State?
14. What is the impact of ICT on decision making process of tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State?
15. How does ICT impact on maintenance of facilities of tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State?
16. In what way does ICT impact on conduct of examinations and presentation of results in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
On the basis of the research questions asked the following null hypotheses were formulated for the study;
HO1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on impact of ICT on Record Keeping in tertiary academic institutions of Anambra State.
HO2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of ICT on communication in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State.
HO3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of ICT on monitoring and evaluation in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State.
HO4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of ICT on staff development of tertiary academic institutions of Anambra State.
HO5. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of ICT on Maintenance of Discipline in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State.
HO6. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of ICT on decision making process in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State.
HO7. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of ICT on maintenance of facilities in academic tertiary institutions in Anambra State.
HO8. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of ICT in conduct of examinations and presentation of results in tertiary academic institutions in Anambra State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study revealed the relevance of information and communication technology particularly as it relates to workers in in tertiary institutions. Similarly, the outcome of the study is expected to assist workers in in tertiary institutions in their decisions towards Information and Communication Technology. The research is of benefit to researchers who are expected to acquaint themselves with this research and source out knowledge that can be of benefit to their research. The outcome also revealed how Information and Communication Technology can be improved in workers in in tertiary institutions as such it can be a useful source of literature review.
The results, conclusions and recommendations of this study are useful to tertiary institutions when using the computer for managerial activities to set up guides based on their needs for use of emerging information technologies. Similarly, the study will help fill the gap discovered in the empirical studies on the use of ICT on workers in tertiary institutions in Anambra State, Nigeria. Findings are expected to provide feedback on the areas of ICT usage which management staff can engage in for speeding managerial activities as well as suggested various computer facilities to engage other Stake holders, government agencies and foreign bodies. In addition, the result of this study is beneficial to National Universities Commission (NUC).
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some terms are discussed below based on the way they are used in the research work.
Management: management involves a person or a manager, making use of resources (both human and physical or material) in achieving the goals of an organization through effective planning, organizing, directing, motivating, controlling and budgeting.
Academic tertiary institutions: as the education given after secondary education in universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, and mono techniques including those institutions offering correspondence courses.
Information and communication technology: ICTs cover Internet service provision, telecommunications equipment and services, information technology equipment and services, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentation centre’s, commercial information providers, network-based information services.
Record Keeping: is receiving and storing, call up, and transmitting a vast amount of information that will facilitate administrative duties.
Communication: Dissemination of information and knowledge between management and staff and students of the institutions.
Monitoring & Evaluation: is effective monitoring and efficient teaching performance and feedback. Evaluation is periodic assessment of the relevance, performance and efficiency in the tertiary institution.
Staff Development: Are efficient workers in personnels in terms of training and capacity building.
Maintenance of Discipline: in this context is the management and keeping records of crime, staff and students indiscipline and growth of checked in the institutions.
Decision making: is determination of control, direction and method of accomplishing the overall organisational objectives for better output.
Maintenance of Facilities: using ICT in keeping record of facilities.
Conduct of Examination: application of ICT in examination conducts and result accessible online.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study determined the extent of ICT usage for managerial activities in academic tertiary institutions in Anambra state. The research work did not cover all the tertiary institutions in Anambra state but only the universities, colleges of education and polytechnics as selected by the researcher.
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