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My research Project is to develop fingerprint biometrics systems that assist in the elimination of examination impersonation. Up till now, the WAEC examination board (WAEC) is not using fingerprint as mode of identification, this has resulted in people sitting for WAEC examinations for others who collect the result at the end. With the adoption of fingerprint, this will be eliminated as fingerprint; this will be eliminated as fingerprint identification will also be employed during collection of results and certificates. This target can be mainly decomposed into image preprocessing, feature extraction and feature match. For each sub-task, some classical and up-to-date methods in literatures are analyzed. Based on the analysis, an integrated solution for fingerprint recognition is developed for demonstration. My demonstration program is coded using visual studio for the program, some optimization at coding level and algorithm level are proposed to improve the performance of my fingerprint recognition system. These performance enhancements are shown by experiments conducted upon a variety of fingerprint images. Also, the experiments illustrate the key issues of fingerprint recognition that are consistent with what the available literatures say. Main objective is to eliminate any form impersonation during exam by employing a more secured means of fingerprint biometrics. vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page- - - - - - - - - - - -i
Certification - - - - - - - - -- -ii
Approval page- - - - - - - - - - -iii
Dedication- - - - - - - - - - - -iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - -v
Abstract- - - - - - - - - - - -vi
Table of contents- - - - - - - - - - -vii
Introduction- - - - - - - - - - -1
Background of Study- - - - - - - - - -3
Objective of Study- - - - - - - - - -7
State of Problem- - - - - - - - - - -8
Scope of the Study- - - - - - - - - -8
Significance of the Study- - - - - - - - -8
Literature Review- - - - - - - - - - -12
Methodology and Analysis of the present System- - - - - -62 viii
The Research Methodology- - - - - - - - -62
Evaluation and Inspection of Document- - - - - - -67
Analysis of the Current System- - - - - - - -68
Problem of Existing System- - - - - - - - -69
4.0 system specification and design- - - - - - - -70
Conclusion, recommendation- - - - - - - - -88
5.0 conclusion- - - - - - - - - - - -88
5.1 recommendation- - - - - - - - - -88
References- - - - - - - - - - - -90
Appendix - - - - - - - - - - - -92 1
Formal examination can rightly be defined as the assessment of a person‘s
Performance, when confronted with a series of questions, problems, or tasks set him, in order to ascertain the amount of knowledge that he has acquired, the extent to which he is able to utilize it, or the quality and effectiveness of the skills he has developed.
The Jesuits introduced written examination into their schools in the 16th century. The Definitive Ratio Argue Institution Studiorum of 1599, which was not revised until 1932, contains a code of rules for the conduct of school examinations, which were held annually, and determined whether or not children were promoted to a higher class. During the 19th century, formal written examinations became regular in universities, schools, and other educational institutions. Examinations were also increasingly employed for the selection of recruits to the civil service, and the professions, and to posts in industry and commence. Over the ages, standardized testing has been the most common methodology, yet the validity and credibility of the expanded range of contemporary assessment techniques have been called into question.
There are two types of systems that help automatically establish the identity of a person: 2
1) Authentication (verification) systems and
2) Identification systems. In a verification system, a person desired to be identified submits an identity claim to the system, usually via a magnetic stripe card, login name, smart card, etc., and the system either rejects or accepts the submitted claim of identity (Am I who I claim I am?). In an identification system, the system establishes a subject‘s identity (or fails if the subject is not enrolled in the system data base) without the subject‘s having to claim an identity (Who am I?). The topic of this paper is channel towards the development of examination impersonation elimination system and this system would strictly do with the unique feature of identification by means of finger print. A verification system based on fingerprints, and the terms verification, authentication, and identification are used in a loose sense and synonymously.
Accurate automatic personal identification is becoming more and more important to the operation of our increasingly electronically interconnected information society. Traditional automatic personal identification technologies to verify the identity of a person, which use ―Something that you know,‖ such as a personal identification number (PIN), or ―something that you have,‖ such as an identification (ID) card, key, etc., are no longer considered reliable enough to satisfy the security requirements of electronic transactions or school management system. All of these techniques suffer from a common problem of inability to 3
differentiate between an authorized person and an impostor who fraudulently acquires the access privilege of the authorized person.
Biometrics is a technology that (uniquely) identifies a person based on his physiological or behavioral characteristics. It relies on ―something that you are‖ to make personal identification and therefore can inherently differentiate between an authorized person and a fraudulent imposter. Although biometrics cannot be used to establish an absolute ―yes/no‖ personal identification like some of the traditional technologies, it can be used to achieve a ―positive identification‖ with a very high level of confidence, such as an error rate of 0.001%. Fingerprint technology using biometrics employ certain advantage of eradicating the problem of examination impersonation by allowing the measure of what you are to perform the security activities of student participation in the exams.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
An examination board is an organization that sets examinations and is responsible for marking them and distributing results. Examination boards have the power to award qualifications, such as SAT scores, to students. Most exam boards are running as non-profit organizations.
The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) is a not-for-profit examination board formed out of the concern for education in Africa. Established in 1952, the 4
council has contributed to education in Anglophonic countries of West Africa (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia), with the number of examinations they have coordinated, and certificates they have issued. They also formed an endowment fund, to contribute to the education in West Africa, through lectures, and aid to those who cannot afford education.
Dr. Adeyegbe, HNO of WAEC Nigeria (2004) said "the council has developed a team of well-trained and highly motivated staff, and has administered Examinations that are valid and relevant to the educational aspirations of member countries". In a year, over three million candidates registered for the exams coordinated by WAEC. The council also helps other examination bodies (both local and international) in coordinating Examinations.
The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, University of London School Examinations Matriculation Council and West African Departments of Education met in 1948, concerning education in West Africa. The meeting was called to discuss the future policy of education in West Africa. At the meeting, they appointed Dr. George Barker Jeffery (Director of the University Of London Institute Of Education) to visit some West African countries, so as to see the general education level and requirements in West Africa. At the end of Jeffery's three month visit (December 1949- March 1950) to Ghana, the Gambia, Sierra 5
Leone, and Nigeria, he tendered a report (since known as Jeffery report) strongly supporting the need for a West African Examination Council, and making detailed recommendations on the composition and duties of the Council. Following this report, the groups met with the governments of these countries, and they agreed on establishing a West African Examination council, fully adopting Jeffery's recommendations.
The legislative assemblies of Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, and the
Gambia passed an ordinance (West African Examinations Council Ordinance
NO. 40) approving the West African Examination Council in Dec 1951. The
Ordinance agreed to the coordination of exams, and issuing of
certificates to students in individual countries by the West African
Examination Council. Liberia later issued their ordinance in 1974, at
the annual meeting held in Lagos, Nigeria. After the success of forming
an examination council, the council called a first meeting in Accra,
Ghana on March 1953. In the meeting, the registrar briefed everybody
about the progress of the council. In that same meeting, five committees
were formed to assist the council. These committees are: Administrative
and Finance Committee, School Examinations Committee, Public Service
Examinations Committee, The Professional, Technical and Commercial
Examinations Committee, and the Local Committee. The total number of
people present for this meeting was 26. 6
CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL
DIRECTOR OF BOARD
CHAIRMAN OF EDUCATIONAL SHCEME
CHAIRMAN OF EDUCATIONAL SCHEDULING
CHAIRMAN OF EXAMS RECORD
DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR 7
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is as follows
To create a system that is capable of tracking impersonators in the examination system using the methodology of finger print biometrics.
To reduce rate of corruption in the educational sector and increase the rate of self confidence on students.
To demonstrate the possibility of computer technology in the
satisfaction of human needs and also enforce strict security measures
that ensure unregistered students do not write exams for other
The justification for the system is as follows
To add more security measures to the examination processes using finger print biometrics.
To eliminate the possibility of an imposter appearing in an exam.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problems which are encountered in the previous system are
In secured authentication of students
Manual verification of student
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This system would be implemented using the vb.net and Microsoft
access database and also all necessary method of data collection within
my reach to ensure the system meet up to acceptable standard has been
put into consideration. Also tables‘ graphs for easily analysis and
demonstration of development trend of achievement would also be shown.
Also this work would be carried out under close supervision for adequate
guidance and interpretation of the work as it unfolds.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
With the increasing rate of exam malpractices in the educational sectors the school management deserve to inculcate a tight security means to ensure that these activities of exam impersonators stop. The activities of these exam impersonators have seen the educational sector suffer some serious form corruption ranging from registered student, to examination supervisor. So it best for the educational body to 9
strategies some certain security means to stop this aspect of corruption in the educational sector.
The system uses a finger prints biometrics this would help ensure that only registered student during registration with their finger prints are allowed into the examination hall.
The system would contribute in the area of stopping any activity of corruption in the educational sector among students, and student to teachers.
Hard work would be encouraged as every registered student knows he/she is going to write the exam by him or herself.
The impersonation which has eating the educational system there by encouraging laziness among students would be eliminated and standard of student educational performance would be increased.
DEFINITION OF TERMS/VARIABLES USED
WAEC: A body responsible for conducting and issuing certificate to secondary school graduating student among West Africa.
DATABASE: A collection of related information which can be stored and retrieved.
EXAMINATION: A measure for the test of knowledge.
MALPRACTICES: This refers to negligence or misconduct
IMPERSONATION: General process of acting on behalf of a client.
IMPERSONATOR: A performed skilled at copying the manner or expression of another mime.
FINGER PRINT: An impression on a surface of the curves formed by the ridges on a finger tip.
BIOMETRICS: Is the use of measurable, biological characteristics such as fingerprints, or iris patterns to identify a person to an electronic system.
ELIMINATION: To get rid of
DESIGN: Is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi faceted qualities of objects processes, service and their systems in whole life cycles.
SECURITY ACCESS: Permission granted to users base on their identification.
AUTHENTICATION: The process of identifying someone base on users name or password in security system 11
AUTHORIZATION: Act of granting someone the permission to do or take something 12
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