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National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the
state through the use of economic, security operatives especially
police, political power and the exercise of diplomacy. The concept
developed mostly in the United States of America after World War II
focusing on the police and military might. Now, it encompasses a
broad range of facets, all of which impinge on the police and military
for economic security of the nation, lives property and values
protected by national society. Accordingly, in order to possess
national security, a nation needs to possess economic security,
energy security, environmental security, etc. Security threats involve
not only conventional foes such as other national states but also non
state actors such as violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels,
multinational corporations and non-governmental organizations;
some authorities include natural disasters and events causing severe
environmental change in this category.
The origin of the modern concept of “national security” as a
philosophy of maintaining a stable nation state can be traced to the
peace of Westphalia, wherein the concept of a sovereign state, ruled
by a sovereign, became the basis of a new international order of
As an academic concept, national security can be seen as a recent
phenomenon which was first introduced in the United States after
World War II, and has to some degree replaced other concepts that
describe the struggle of states to overcome various external and
internal threats. The struggle of states to overcome various external
and internal threats. The earliest mention of the term national
security, however, was made in Yale University in 1790 wherein was
made to its relation with domestic industries.
The concept of the national security became an official guiding
principle of foreign policy in the United States when the National
security Act of 1947 was signed on July 26, 1947 by the U.S.
President Harry S. Truman. Together with its 1949 amendment, this
act create American national security d important facets for American
national security as the precursor to the department of defense,
subordinated the security operatives branches to the new cabinet
level position of the secretary of defense, established the National
Security council and the Central Intelligence Agency. The Act did not
define national security which was conceivably advantageous as it’s
ambiguity made it a powerful phrase to invoke whenever issues
threatened by other interests of the state, such as domestic
concerns, came up for discussion and decision making.
The realization that national security encompasses more than just
security was present though understated, from the beginning itself.
The US National Security Act of 1947 was set up “to advise the
president on the integration of domestic security and foreign policies
related to national security”.
Gen Maxwell Taylor’s essay of 1947 titled “The Legitimate claims of
National Security” has this to say;
The national valuables in this broad sense include current ass ets and
national interests, as well as the sources of strength upon which our
future as a nation depends. Some valuables are tangible and earthly;
others are spiritual or intellectual. They range widely from political
a s s e t s s u c h a s t h e Bill o f Rig h t s , N a t io n al S e c u rit y a n d p olitic al
in s tit u tio n s a n d in t e r n a tio n al r ela tio n s t o m a n y e c o n o mic a s s e t s
which radiate worldwide from a highly productive domestic economy
supported by rich natural resources. It is the urgent need to protect
valuables such as these wh ich legitimizes and makes essential the
role of national security.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Security information system has always played a vital role in the
stability of a nation. Keeping security information manually can
hinder some defense program and delay passage of security
information to the appropriate body. Manual documentation of
security information can lead to exposure of the information thereby
creating threat to the nation at large. Hence, there is need for an
automated security information system to guaranty safety of
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to develop a database for
security information storage and retrieval.
Specifically, the following objectives are also considered:
i. To build a database system for police security information.
ii. To develop a software for managing security information.
iii. To determine the effectiveness of Nigerian police in managing
1.3 DEFINITION OF TERMS/VARIABLES
Policing: Policing is another way of depicting the police.
Anti-policing: Anti-policing is the society’s social attitude opposed
to war between states and in particular countering arguments based
Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data,
structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It
is also called a databank.
National Security: The requirement to maintain the survival of the
nation-state through the use of economic, policing, and political
power and the exercise of diplomacy.
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