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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE............................................................................................................................ i

1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1

2.0 COMPONENTS OF STABILIZATION................................................................. 3

2.1 Soils...................................................................................................................... 3

2.2 Stabilizing Agents ................................................................................................ 3

2.2.1 Cement ............................................................................................................ 4

2.2.2 Lime ................................................................................................................ 5

2.2.3 Fly–Ash........................................................................................................... 6

2.2.4 Blast Furnace Slags......................................................................................... 8

2.2.5 Pozzolanas....................................................................................................... 9

2.3 Factors Affecting the Strength of Stabilized Soil................................................. 9

2.3.1 Organic Matter ................................................................................................ 9

2.3.2 Sulphates ....................................................................................................... 10

2.3.3 Sulphides....................................................................................................... 10

2.3.4 Compaction................................................................................................... 10

2.3.5 Moisture Content .......................................................................................... 11

2.3.6 Temperature .................................................................................................. 12

2.3.7 Freeze-Thaw and Dry-Wet Effect................................................................. 12

3.0 STABILIZATION METHODS............................................................................. 13

3.1 In–Situ Stabilization........................................................................................... 13

3.1.1 Deep Mixing Method.................................................................................... 13

3.1.2 Quality Control and Quality Assurance........................................................ 19

3.1.3 Applications .................................................................................................. 20

3.1.4 Mass Stabilization......................................................................................... 27

3.2 Ex-Situ Stabilization .......................................................................................... 30

4.0 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 33

i

PREFACE

The knowledge of soil Stabilization in geotechnical engineering has been well documented. Journal articles and text books on stabilization technology are available to the students, practicing and consulting engineers in the field of geotechnical engineering. This state of the art review brings up to date trends in stabilization practice with the main focus in stabilization methods and materials. The first part of this review discusses the effect of various binders on stabilized soils. The second part describes stabilization methods and equipment. The review describes in brief modernized stabilization methods and equipment to practicing engineers. For detailed information about the subject matter, readers should refer to the cited authors available in the reference list.

Luleå 2012

Makusa, G.P.

PhD Student

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Site feasibility study for geotechnical projects is of far most beneficial before a project can take off. Site survey usually takes place before the design process begins in order to understand the characteristics of subsoil upon which the decision on location of the project can be made. The following geotechnical design criteria have to be considered during site selection.

 Design load and function of the structure.

 Type of foundation to be used.

 Bearing capacity of subsoil.

In the past, the third bullet played a major in decision making on site selection. Once the bearing capacity of the soil was poor, the following were options:

 Change the design to suit site condition.

 Remove and replace the in situ soil.

 Abandon the site.

Abandoned sites due to undesirable soil bearing capacities dramatically increased, and the outcome of this was the scarcity of land and increased demand for natural resources. Affected areas include those which were susceptible to liquefaction and those covered with soft clay and organic soils. Other areas were those in a landslide and contaminated land. However, in most geotechnical projects, it is not possible to obtain a construction site that will meet the design requirements without ground modification. The current practice is to modify the engineering properties of the native problematic soils to meet the design specifications. Nowadays, soils such as, soft clays and organic soils can be improved to the civil engineering requirements. This state of the art review focuses on soil stabilization method which is one of the several methods of soil improvement.

Soil stabilization aims at improving soil strength and increasing resistance to softening by water through bonding the soil particles together, water proofing the particles or combination of the two (Sherwood, 1993). Usually, the technology provides an alternative provision structural solution to a practical problem. The simplest stabilization processes are compaction and drainage (if water drains out of wet soil it becomes stronger). The other process is by improving gradation of particle size and further

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improvement can be achieved by adding binders to the weak soils (Rogers et al, 1996). Soil stabilization can be accomplished by several methods. All these methods fall into two broad categories (FM 5-410) namely;

- mechanical stabilization

Under this category, soil stabilization can be achieved through physical process by altering the physical nature of native soil particles by either induced vibration or compaction or by incorporating other physical properties such as barriers and nailing. Mechanical stabilization is not the main subject of this review and will not be further discussed.

- chemical stabilization

Under this category, soil stabilization depends mainly on chemical reactions between stabilizer (cementitious material) and soil minerals (pozzolanic materials) to achieve the desired effect. A chemical stabilization method is the fundamental of this review and, therefore, throughout the rest of this report, the term soil stabilization will mean chemical stabilization.

Through soil stabilization, unbound materials can be stabilized with cementitious materials (cement, lime, fly ash, bitumen or combination of these). The stabilized soil materials have a higher strength, lower permeability and lower compressibility than the native soil (Keller bronchure 32-01E). The method can be achieved in two ways, namely; (1) in situ stabilization and (2) ex-situ stabilization. Note that, stabilization not necessary a magic wand by which every soil properties can be improved for better (Ingles and Metcalf, 1972). The decision to technological usage depends on which soil properties have to be modified. The chief properties of soil which are of interest to engineers are volume stability, strength, compressibility, permeability and durability (Ingles and Metcalf, 1972; Sherwood, 1993; EuroSoilStab, 2002). For a successful stabilization, a laboratory tests followed by field tests may be required in order to determine the engineering and environmental properties. Laboratory tests although may produce higher strength than corresponding material from the field, but will help to assess the effectiveness of stabilized materials in the field. Results from the laboratory tests, will enhance the knowledge on the choice of binders and amounts (EuroSoilStab, 2002).





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