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Bureaucracy is an element of administration, so interlocked that government parastatals especially complex organizations applies it for efficiency and effectiveness in the management of the organization. It is legal, impartial and rational but when bottleneck is attached, makes it a continental nuisance, as organized system for not getting things done effectively.
This research work brings to the fore the effect of bureaucracy and bureaucratic bottleneck and its implications on the organizational set up.
Also included on government intention for establishing public service and a brief history of Imo State broadcasting corporation as a case a tentative conclusion of the research work.
The aim is to educate the people and serve as a mouth piece of both government and masses in their relationship and to make constructive contributions to the thoughts and decisions on issues of public policy.
This is tailored in a manner that findings, summary and recommendation were made to help students, civil servants and pressure groups to be educated on effect of bureaucratic bottleneck on performance generally.
Bureaucracy just like other concepts in social science does not have a generally acceptable definition. This is due top it complex nature and varied explanations conferred on it by many authors.
According to Mcfarl (1979) “Bureaucracy” is a system of organization and management in which role task and relationship among people and positions are clearly defined carefully prescribed and controlled in accordance with formal authority”
Max Weber opines that bureaucracy is an organizational structure with rules and regulations and expertise he argue that organization members are protected from favoritism arbitrary authority pay offs kick backs and incompetence.\
With hierarchy in existence of workers would be aware of definite positions he would go through to advance in respect of through to advance in respect of great responsibilities pay increase and promotions.
The rewards should equally serve as motivating elements that generate a high degree of efficient and communication from the workers.
The term bureaucracy is often heard and used in connection with conducted of public officials in particular.
According to Adebayo (1992) bureaucracy refers to the way public officials go about their business and the impression created in the minds of public.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
From the view of deferent authors and scholars at deferent time however a common characteristics apparent in the various conceptualization is that the term refer to organization is frame work design to accomplish large scale administrative task by way of systematic coordination of the work of many people with a view to achievement get or prescribed objectives.
Therefore bureaucracy is defined as a heretically structure organization set up or the people of perusing clearly defined goals through the principle of division of labour and formal operations. To the public n bureaucracy is not a virtue in administration and insatiable a from it implies a certain degree of inflexibility, impersonality in efficiency degree lack of initiative unnecessary and unintelligent rigidity in the approach to human problem s undue fussiness and bossiness on the part of official that right down right stubbornness unnecessary strict application of rules.
This is the kind off Impression people have about it especially when official perform, their administrative task. It is in this regard that bureaucracy constitute a problem administration which takes us to bureaucracy bottleneck.
Bureaucracy bottleneck is defined as a complicated official system which caused delay in one stage of process that makes the what process take longer to accomplish. According Longman dictionary of the contemporary English. This is a process in which practice and operation of bureaucracy is over done. Such as the needless multiplication/duplication of duties in the name of bureaucracy. When there is a bureaucratic bottleneck in the organizational management it rise to:
1) excessive compliance with rules to the extents of alienation and even go displacement e,g some bureaucratic see rules as end in themselves rather than as means to an end.
2) Red tapism which is tedious and protracted official process often considered by the critics as time wasting
3) Rigidity it is rigid statics and inflexible often strict adherence to regulations produces timidity conservatism and technicism. It in tends to encourage compliance with rule and regulation may provide the cover to avoid responsibility for failures.
4) Impersonality: bureaucracy emphasis mechanical ways of doing things rules and rules and regulation of the ways of doing thing, Rules and regulation needs and emotions no wonder bureaucracy has been labeled as an organization with out person no human consideration. Bureaucracy treat organization as a close system free from external intervention.
Every government parastatals cannot operate without the use of bureaucracy. It is know to be an element of administration and insuperable from it public parastatals are extra ministerial agencies which are established by the acts of parliament of decree (in a situation of military government they are charge with specific responsible of function they are establish to provide essential services.
However, the basis for the establishment of public parastatls is often the conviction that if the public enterprises are removed from the red tapewic vcharcteristics civil services, bureaucracy, that bthe public enterprise are likeliy to have better performance. And be more effects in the production and distribution and good and services. Imparctics, govement own entprise defer tremidiously from private sector that provide the same range ofbgood and service.
Then public enterprise are still subject to some degree of government control usually most public enterprise are financed by the government through grant. It helped to bring their operation close to the control of the government.
Furthermore, all the public enterprises and co-operation, come und er the obit of a supervisor or a parent ministry which is headed by a minister or a commissioner to which the parastatals is expected to sumit its performance evaluation report (PER) periodically.
It is imperative note the while some public parastrals are profit oriented other are service oriented, but are excepted to at least make some money to complement government subvention and it is this group that the Imo state broad casting corporation (IBC) can be identified according to Ejiofor 91984) from he management oriented insider, the state owned enterprises have perform fairly from the circumstance. Badly from the critics. He maintained that the lack of interest compounding the managerial incompetence of state owned enterprises have consequently led to the high mortality rate, commercialization and privatization of public enterprises. In appreciation Ejiofor viewed Nwabuzor (1989) maintain that one point which virtually that Nigeria’s were agree on, is that state own ed enterprise of the year have performed frustratingly poorly both are the federal and the state level. Also in their view, Onuoha And Udensi (199) held at many of the parasites have achieved notoriety for non performance as result of good number of this paarastastls has go into oblivion. Okekere (1983) it is view that failure of the government of owed in of government owned companies to perform profitable and parastatls have been attributed to the following factors:
1) Government interference in management of the companies
2) dysfunctional, location of industries
3) unfeasible location of industries
4) Appointment of board of directors
He maintain that above factors created management problems problem which to lead to failure of,most government owned companies. In Imo State it is view that Imo state broadcasting corporation is established to provided essential service, being a public utility through which information reach the mass, people receive instructions announcement and amusement. It is a body that set out to selected and give us important bits of information intelligently a life with then things that are going around us this research wok is to know with the application of bureaucratic bottleneck how it has affected it affected the performance of public service positively and negatively and its primary objective.
1.2 STATEMENT of problem
Since the cooperation under study is a public corporation established with tax pays money it is therefore constantly under the public eye. Thee has been strong evidence of poor management political interference, financial limitation/inadequate capital illegal limitation poor location of t he enterprises, excessive compliance with rule to the extent of goal displacement, red-tapism, much rigidity, impersonality, lack of distinction, stifling of creativity or initiative constructing barriers to wards the effect of bureaucratic bottleneck on the performance of Imo state public service for instance the appointment of ye board of directors in the Imo state has become a political exercise use to compensate party members for role they played during election campaign period. Meritocracy in the Imo state public service.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
To examine the effect of bureaucratic bottleneck using Imo state broadcasting cooperation as a case study, thee are specific reason why government establishes an organization or company. This may include providing social service for the people even though the aims for these public corporation creation is not profit maximization they are expected to at lest break even so at to encourage the public and government that established them. Government spends huge amount of money in establishing these corporation with the primary purpose of creating employment, indigenizing the economy and ensuring a steady growth rate of the gross national product (GNP) all these are designed to improve the living standard of the populace.
The bureaucratic bottleneck can limit these expectations therefore
(1) There should not be excessive compliance with rules, through bureaucracy are to be followed but should not be in extreme so as to avoid displacement of goals of the organization.
(2) Rigidity has to be curtailed in appliance of bureaucracy since it breeds resistance to change. The organization need to be flexible in their dealing to accommodate the human element in them.
(3) Impersonality in bureaucracy destroys a lot of things in organization, the human beings / employee needs has to be addressed to make them feel important in the organization so as to achieve maximum production from them.
When an employee is been treated well it enhances its performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Does Bureaucratic bottleneck have any effect on performance of Imo State public service?
2. Do you agree that redtapism in Imo State public service leads to poor performance?
3. How often does government interferes in the administration of Imo State public service.
4. What is the relationship between management and workers?
5. Can delay in decision making be regarded as one of the problems facing Imo State Public Service.
6. Does the performance of Imo State Public Service have any effect on the workers performance.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
To guide this study the following hypothesis are generated.
(i) Hi: Impersonality in bureaucracy rules and regulations are glorified in place of employees needs and emotion which lead to poor performance.
Ho: Impersonality in bureaucracy rules and regulation are not glorified in place of employee needs and emotion which lead to poor performance.
(i) Hi: Excessive compliance with rules result to goal displacement of Imo State public service.
Ho: Excessive compliance with rule does not result to goal displacement in Imo State public service.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research work provides an insight as well as broadens the general knowledge on the effects of bureaucratic bottleneck on the performance in Imo State public service.
This study sighted a strict control of officials and their resistance to specialize tasks. This is a limitation of human freedom and a keel of organization democracy. They largely prevent spontaneity, creativity and individual initiative and so leads to inflexibility and timidity in Imo State public service. There is no improvement and good innovation in the organization, no wonder each time you sees the organization (Imo State public service are, it looks very much like old and deserted place not withstanding the different place that the organization has relocated. On visiting the place, the workers there show non-challant attitude to the incoming public.
If this bureaucratic bottleneck is remove from the bureaucracy, both the government and the public will benefit much from the organization, the organization will grow and administrative duties expand and proliferate.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses primarily on operations of the Imo State public service, Albeit references will be made occasionally in this study to other government owned co-operation in Imo State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The making of this work was not easy, starting from the task of choosing a project topic, collection of data, reading through and criticizing of the manuscript and bringing it up to this level. There is inadequate information from the respondent means of transportation was difficult due to vehicle conjunction with in owerri municipal. There is limitation of time due to my academic pursuit and financial constraints.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERM
(1) Apparatus: The way in which a lot of people are organized to work together to do a job or control a company.
(2) Arbitrary: Unfairly decided or arranged without any company.
(3) Bureaucracy: A complicated official system which is annoying or confusing because it has a lot of roles and process.
(4) Bureaucratic Bottleneck: A complicated official system which causes a delay in one stage of a process that makes the whole process take longer.
(5) Bureaucrats: Someone who works in a bureaucracy and use official rules very strictly.
(6) Commercialization To be more concerned with making money from something. An act of making an organization more profit oriented.
(7) Decrees: An official order or decision
(8) Distribution: An act of sharing goods to people/community.
(9) Efficiency: This is the ability to maximize the use of resources in the achieving organizational objectives by doing things right.
(10) Enterprises: Means a company, organization or business
(11) Organization: A business that has formed for a particular purpose
(12) Parliament: The main law making institution in U.K
(13) Privatization: Is the act of covering an organization concern, owned and managed by the government operating for private.
(14) Production: The quality of goods that is produced.
(15) Public parastatals: These are government owned enterprises and cooperation aimed at providing services to the people ate affordable prices.
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