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The study was designed to find out the “Effect of Human Relations on Organizational Productivity in Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), Kaduna. To provide a theoretical base for the study, a review was made on the concept of human relations, development of human relations, importance of human relations in an organization as well as the qualities and principles of a good human relations practice. A sample size of 50 respondents from a population of 500, comprising of top, middle and low level management was used. A set of questionnaire which was divided into 5 variables was used to obtain data from the respondents; the use of mean score which is 3.00 as cut off point was utilized. One of the research questions asked was whether human relations is instrumental to the attainment of organizational goal. The researcher collected data and interpreted them after which chi-square was used to test the earlier stated hypothesis. Lastly, summary, conclusion and recommendations were made. One of the recommendations made was that managers should maintain good human relations so that goals can be achieved. Findings from the study revealed that the relationship that exists among workers in organization, the effectiveness of human relations in an organization can enhance workers productivity, employees morale can be boosted on the job when there is a cordial relationship between the organization and its employees, and good human relations enhances job satisfaction in achieving organizational goals. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that, low level workers should strive to perform better, to justify the good human relations and motivation existing in the organization, management staff and other senior workers in the organization should create conducive atmosphere to facilitate good human relations and teamwork for greater productivity. Also the organization should educate their workers on the importance of good human relations through workshops and seminars.




The practice of Human Resource Management in its quest towards achieving success through people utilizes array of activities concerned with all aspects of how people are employed and managed in organizations. This approach tends to understand how psychological and social processes interacts with the work situation to influence performance. Human Relations is the first major approach to emphasis information work relationship and work satisfaction. Thus, Ezinwa and Agomon (1993) asserted that human relations encompasses the art and practice of using systematic knowledge of human behaviour to achieve organization and personal objectives. Organizations are made up of individuals, the immediate environment and the public that contributes to the success or failure of the organization.

Onasanya (1990) in similar vain believes that human relations, being a behavoural science which deals with inter-personal, inter-work group and management of employees relationship in a social system seems to be the only tool for organizational productivity and development. The reason is not far fetched since efforts of Elton Mayo and his research colleagues in the 1920s on behavioural approach to management succeeded to have yielded much more factual analysis in terms of the chicken-egg relationship between human relations and productivity in an organization.

Hicks and Byers (1982) in their contributions defined human relations as “the integration of people into a work situation in a way that motivates them to work together, productively and cooperatively with economic, psychological and social satisfaction”. This further confirms that paying attention to the human elements enhances greater productivity and performance.

Human relations is a definitive management function which helps to establish and maintain mutual line of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its human. It involves the management to keep opinions, defines, and as well emphasizes the responsibility of management to serve the human interest.

However, human relations has long attained professional status but it has been discovered that most organizations are not taking full advantage of its efficient utilization when dealing with their publics due to ignorance or improper understanding as to the effectiveness of the discipline to organizational success. Thus effect the need for this study in order to highlight the effect of human relations practice on organizational productivity.


Inspite of the glaring importance of human relations in the realization of organizational goals, one still hears complaint of poor performance of both employees and employers in the organization even till this day. Beside, employees can resign from their appointments as a result of executive’s harshness and autocracy, employees having their appointment terminated due to poor performance or failure to perform, the organization may fold up because of low productivity, poor employees and employers relationship, inability to meet the organization’s set targets or mismanagement.

It is as a result of these trends that make it necessary for this study to address the following questions:

How effective is the practice of Human Relations system to the attainment of organizational goals?

Does Human Relations has any impact on worker’s performance?

Does Human Relations determine employees retention in the organization?


This study is intended to:

i)            Find out the effects of human relations’ practice towards  the achievement of organizational goals.

ii)          Examine whether human relations has an impact on worker’s performance.

iii)        Establish whether human relations is determinant of employees retention in the organization.


The following hypothesis are formulated for this study:

H0:    Human Relations does not have effect on workers’ productivity.

H1:    Human Relations have effect on workers’ productivity.


In view of the constant struggle by the organizations to balance both the employee’s needs and the organizational needs for the effective actualization of set goals, it is expected that the study would be of good benefits to executives, managers, future business establishment and future researchers. Similarly, the study will help organizations to improve on implementing human relations policies so as to enable them control problems facing them from such angle.

Infact, it will serve as eye-opener to most organizations who are yet to embrace the system, thereby enlighten workers (industrial and groups) about the concept of human relations and the effect on productivity. It is hoped that the study would also help executives to improve on the need for good human relations with workers and clients to improve the organization’s performance.

In addition, the adoption of this new approach to firm’s advancement will improve employees performance, productivity, efficiency as well as employees attitude to work.

Furthermore, the study will also be of help to those who may want to research into the area by serving as a reference material for future investigation.


This study centres on the effect of Human Relations on organizational productivity using Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, Kaduna as a case study. The study covers sizeable staff of the institute drawn from the various cadre of management (form top management to subordinates) in order to ensure a more comprehensive and detail examination. The staff includes both the male and female sex of different ages and level of service.


The following problems affect the effective conduct of this study:

Time: Although the time for the study is quite long, but academic demand such as preparation for tests, assignments and paper presentations took a lot of time for one to go out and source for information.

Financial Constraint: This was another limitation which made it uneasy for the materials to be easily assessed at the appropriate time.

Bureaucratic Bottle-Neck: In addition, stringent rules and regulations guiding the release of information in the institute (NITR) made it almost impossible for one to obtained details about the organization.


Establishment of Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR)

Prior to 1945, the trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) situation in West Africa became alarming. In the 1930s, average of 100,000 cases was diagnosed yearly. The British Government then found it necessary to send a high powered scientific delegation to examine the magnitude of problem and make recommendations on what actions to take for effective control of the disease in man and animals (Nagoma). This resulted to the establishment of a regional research organization. The West African Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research to serve the needs of four British colonies namely, Nigeria, Gold Coast (Ghana), Sierra – Leon, and the Gambia. This organization had the responsibility to research on all aspects of trypanosomiasis (human and animals) and entomology.

The British Government bore two-thirds of the cost of running this regional research scheme while the colonies contributed one third. A Director was appointed to assume duty in 1947 in Nigeria because it was the largest of the four colonies and it provided a much wider variety of conditions connected with tsetsefly and trypanosomiasis. Vom (Plateau State) and Kaduna State were selected for locations of laboratories, with Kaduna as the Headquarters. The decision was influenced by climatic, case of communication and disease conditions in both areas.

The West African Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (WAITR) was officially commissioned in 1951 in Kaduna. By the time it was realized that trypanosomiasis not only caused a high mortality in humans but also of great economic implication in terms of large annual losses among domestic animals. Vast areas of West Africa could not be used to rear cattle because of the presence of tse-tse flies which caused the disease in human and animals. Consequently the farmer was denied the use of animals for work and transport, and deprived of manure for his field, while the diet of the population, both urban and rural remained deficient in protein and milk.

However, with the attainment of independence, the inter-territorial research organization (WAITR) crumbled under political pressure. The other countries later withdrew and the then Federal Government of Nigeria had to assume the full responsibility of the institute. The name was therefore changed to the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR) in 1964. In 1975, research into all aspects of Onchocerciasis (river-blindness) was added into the mandate of NITR. Thus, the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITS) has the responsibility to research into all aspects of human and animal trypanomiasis and human Onchocerciasis (river-blindness) in all the thirty states of the federation including Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria.

The headquarters is still located in Kaduna with Vom (Plateau State) as a major branch. From these locations, work is extended to all states in the federation.


The specific mandate given to the institute is to conduct research into:

i)            The Pathology, immunology and methods of treatment of the two diseases (trypanomiasis and onchocerciasis).

ii)          The ecology and life cycle of the vectors and the mode of transmission of the diseases.

iii)        The socio-economic effects of the diseases on the rural population and;

iv)         Any other matter related to the diseases.


NITR undertakes research on all aspects of human and animal trypanosomiasis as well as onchocerciasis. A three-prone control strategy is adopted by Nigeria. Vector, trypanocidal/filaricidal and integrated control measures. Research goals are consequently formulated against the background of these methods. The institutes current focus includes:

i)            Developing low cost techniques for vector control that can be sustained by the local people with a minimum of inputs of materials and expertise.

ii)          Breeding tsetseflies and blackflies on a large scale in the laboratory for research work.

iii)        Developing and in some cases adopting simple, sensitive and accurate methods of detecting trypanosomes in infected tsetsefly and mammal including man.

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