RESPONSE OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)Moench) VARIETIES TO POULTRY MANURE RATE AND STAND DENSITY IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNAH

RESPONSE OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)Moench) VARIETIES TO POULTRY MANURE RATE AND STAND DENSITY IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNAH

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ABSTRACT

Two trials were conducted during the 2016 rainy season at two sites; namelythe Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) farm, Samaru (11011’N, 7038’E and 686m above sea level) and the experimental site for Kaduna Agricultural Development Project (KADP) located at Maigana, Soba Local Government Area (11039`N;080 02` E, 500m above sea level) in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria to evaluate the Effect of Poultry Manure and Stand density on Okra Varieties. The treatments consisted of three Okra varieties (Yar`balla, Clemson spineless and Jokoso), four poultry manure rates (0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1)and two stand densities (1 and 2 plants per stand) which is equivalent to 37,777 and 75,555 plants per hectarerespectively. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with treatments combined and arranged factorially and replicated three times at both locations. Data was collected on parameters such as plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, leaf area index, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of seeds per pod, number of fruits per plant, 100-seed weight, fresh and dry fruit yield. An increase was recorded in all the growth and yield components when poultry manure rate was increased from 2-6t ha-1 while the lowest values were noted in the control plots in both locations. Application of 6t ha-1 gave the highest fresh and dry fruit yields (3409.5and317.7) kgha-1 in Samaru. Yar`balla variety produced the widest leaf area index, highest number of fruits per plant (16), number of branches (7.00) per plant, number of seeds per pod (119) and significantly lower 100-seed weight (5.65) in Samaru. Clemson spineless produced the longest fruit while Jokoso produced the widest fruit diameter and fresh fruit weight per plant in both trials. A significant and positive correlation between fresh fruit yield and dry fruit yield, plant height, number of leaves, number of branches and fruit length was obtained. The regression analysis for both locations were linear.Based on the result obtained in this study, Jokoso variety at 2 plants per stand (75,555 plants ha-1) using 6 t ha-1 poultry manure gave higher yield compared to other varieties in Samaru and Maigana and could therefore be used by farmers to enhance okra production in both areas during the wet season.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Origin and Distribution of Okra

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus(L.)Moench)originated in Ethopia in the year 120 BC. It is a

common vegetable in tropical and sub-tropicalcountries, native to west and central Africa. It

is known as a fast growing annual vegetable commonly grown in field and home gardens in

Africa (Fayemi, 1999and Schippers, 2000). It belongs to the family,Malvaceae and was

domesticated in West and Central Africa (Kochhar, 1986). It is known as ‘Okro’ in the

Anglophone African countries. Okra is cultivated throughout the tropical and warm temperate

regions of the world for its fibrous fruits


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