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Among ancient civilization, India has been known to be a rich repository of medicinal plants. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts of the bioactive constituents. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. The study such as ethno medicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. A comparative study of photochemicals was made on leaf, root, stem and the comparative content of extract of two herbal plants – Andrographis paniculata and Moringa oleifera. The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals encompasses steroids, phlobatanins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides. The presence of these various phytochemicals shows the importance of Andrographis paniculata and Moringa oleifera in the various ailments.
Plant derived substance has recently become of great interest owing to their versatile application. Medicinal plant are the riches bio-source of drugs and in traditional system of medicines, modern medicine, folk medicine, food supplement, pharmaceutical and chemical study for synthetic drugs. (Ncube et al., 2008). The term extraction is the separation of medicinally active portion of plant (and animal) tissue using selective solvents through standard procedure. The mixture of metabolites in solid or semisolid state.
Plant have the ability to synthesize wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, to defend against attacks from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous animals. Many of the phytochemical have beneficial effects on long-term heart when consumed by human, and can be used effectively to treat human diseases. Chemical compounds in plants, mediate their effects on human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs. Many of the herbs and spices used by human to season food also yields useful medicinal compounds (Tapsell et al., 2006).
Herbs are considered to be food rather than medicines because they are complete, all natural and pure as nature intended. Herbs have been use in cooking or flavouring foods, as perfumes, as disinfectants, to protect it against germs etc. (Barrera, 2002).
According to World Health Organization (WHO) still about 80% of the world population rely mainly on plant based drugs. In Ajurveda, siddha and Unani, utilizing a large number of medicinal plants were used for the treatments of human diseases. (Valsaraj et al., 1997).
1.1 Objective of Study
The main objective of this work was to compare the chemical content of two medicinal plants (Moringa oleifera and Andrographis paniculata). Specific objective are:
i. To verify and confirm the presence of active bioactive metabolites of the plant through phytochemical screening.
ii. To compare the most active ingredients in the two plants.
1.2 Significance of the Study
This research is an attempt to screen the phytochemical content of Moringa oleifera and Andrographis paniculata roots, leaves and stems extract and the bioactive component of this medicinal plants.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
According to Hartmann (2001) Plant secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved to the normal growth, or development of a plant. Unlike primary metabolites, absence of secondary metabolites does not result in immediate death, but rather in long-term impairment of the organism’s survivability or perhaps in no significant change at all. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defence against herbivory (Fred et al., 1959). Human use plant metabolites as medicines, flavourings and recreational drugs.
Secondary plant metabolites are also used to signatory and regulating of primary metabolic path ways. Plant hormones which are secondary metabolites are often use to regulate the metabolic activity within the cell and oversee the overall development of the plant. Plant secondary metabolite helps the plant to maintain an intricate balance within the environment, often adapting to match the environmental needs. Plant metabolic colour the plants are good example of this, as the colouring of a plant can attract pollination.
2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF Moringa oleifera
Botanical Classification of Moringa oleifera
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