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1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
As the marriage is a contract between two parties, it is clear that it shall continue only so long as the two parties carry out the terms and conditions of the contract. But if both or either of them should fail to carry out the terms or fulfill their duties towards each other, then the contract may be broken.
Broken home is regarded as one of the serious social problem that causes psychological problem in individuals. This is because it makes permanent and indelible impact on its victims. In fact the traits of the broken home remain with the individual or victim forever no matter how much happy he/she becomes in later life. It is not only the individual that suffers from this social ill but also the society shares this negative impact too since this individual that could have contributed meaningfully to its socio-economic development has been affected negatively (Beattie, 1980).
Many people are aware that marriage is the foundation laying for home building and divorce which is the major factor that causes broken homes has had a long history and what ever the ultimate out-come may be the solution is not out of sight. On the one hand there are those who will abolish the practice entirely while on the other hand, some feel that broken home is unavoidable human right since genesis. Our legal system representing a kind of compromise between two positions. As a result of this trend, a great number of people began to argue as to what measures or steps to be taken in order to avert the dreadful problem of broken home that have eaten deep into the fabrics of the society (Beattie, 1980).
It is worthy of note that not all marriages stands the test of time. This leads to what is called “BROKEN HOME” which is the separation of a man and a woman who were formally married and living together. This separation could either be permanent or temporary it might be as a result of divorce caused by misunderstanding and quarreling either for economic, social, psychological or emotional reasons (Beattie, 1980).
The home is most important place for children but when the atmosphere of the home is not conducive for instance when there are conflicts and quarrels between the family members in the home, there will be no co-operation and mutual understanding, especially among parents which in turn affects the child’s future (Harlow, 1988).
Causes of broken homes in Nigeria are many and differ from society to society though, there are some major causes that are applicable to almost every part of the world. The effects of broken home, also varies depending on the types and nature of the environment (Harlow, 1988).
The issue of broken home has drawn the attention of several individuals, organization and countries most especially in the under developed countries (third world) as to what measure to be taken to arrest the ugly trend.
This research project is therefore aimed at contributing its quota by trying to identify what causes broken homes, how does broken home affects the academic performance of affected youths and finally how does broken home affects nation building (Harlow, 1988).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many Nigerians suffer the grips of broken home in one way or the other and the term broken home differs from one society to another depending on size, nature and economic activities of the environment. For example, what can be seen as broken home in the urban centers cannot be perceived as broken home in the rural areas or communities (Achebe, 2007).
The problem also varies from one country to another. For instance, what can be seen as broken home in the United states of America may not be seen as broken home in some African countries. Therefore, it is perceived different environment depending on the its nature and causes (Achebe, 2007).
Since the family is the smallest unit of the society and an agent of socialization, it therefore , means that if the family is bad the nation would be bad as well. It is on this basis that the researcher wants to conduct a research on the effects of broken home on academic performance of the affected youths (Achebe, 2007).
In Nigeria society today, it has been observed with great concern that the problems of broken homes have cause much harm to the youths in particular and the society in general. In fact, it has pushed most of the victims into the following:
· Committing suicide
· Backwardness in education
· Lack of parental affection
· Lack of good future ambition
· Moral decadence
· Lack of sense of belonging
· Becoming area boys
· Armed robbery
· Theft and pick pocketing.
It is on this premise that the researcher wants to critically examine the various effects of broken home on academic performance of the secondary school students with particular emphasis on Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
In Nigerian society, broken home is a common phenomenon such that marriages are breaking daily or even hourly and untimely. This happens through divorce which is referred to as the legal termination of a marriage while separation refers to the physical separation of the spouses that is they are no longer sharing the same dwelling,
1.4 Significance of the Study
The research work is conceived out of the curiosity to find out the causes and proffering solution to the problems of broken home on the academic performance of secondary school students with respect to Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna state.
Despite the fact that a lot of people have written on this topic (broken home) as said earlier on, a lot of crimes are now getting deep into fabrics of our society as a result of broken home hence, there is the need for this research work. The result of the investigation will enable the researcher bring out loud able suggestion and recommendations to the issue of rampant causes of broken home in the society.
The study will also educate the teacher on how to find out the pupils with such problems in their classes with a view of assisting them to over-come the problem.
The study will also enlighten the public on the best way to choose a mate (marriage partner) and to run their family life successful.
Above all the study will point out some possible solutions, suggestion and recommendation on how to overcome the already existing problems in our society.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions are going to be investigated by the researcher during the course of this work. This includes:
1. Do childlessness amongst major causes of divorce among the couples?
2. To what extent has lack of love been responsible for divorce?
3. To what extent has economic hardship been responsible for divorce
4. Does involvement of children in secret cult activities is one of the effects of broken homes among the children?
5. Do truancy in school could be one of the effects broken home on children?
6. Do lack of attendance in religious obligations is one of the effects of divorce on the youths?
7. To what extent has broken home leads youths to delinquent behaviours?
8. Does Prostitution and stubbornness responsible for broken home?
9. To what extent has Poor performance and lack of adequate home training been responsible for broken home?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
Therefore a hypothesis is a tentative intelligent question postulated for the purpose of assisting the researcher directing his thinking towards the solution to the problem.
It could also be defined as a set of assumption or speculations which is tentatively accepted as the basis for an investigation that is it is a statement that shows relationship between two or more variables which can be tested or observed empirically.
Therefore these hypotheses are formulated under “Null and Alternative hypothesis denoted by Ho and Hi respectively with a view that if the tested null hypothesis is rejected, the alternative will stand in its place.
The following are the hypothesis underline the project.
i. There is no significant relationship between broken home and deviant behavior.
ii. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of children from broken homes and ideal homes.
iii. There is no significant relationship between academic performance of students and broken home.
iv. There is no significant relationship between early marriage and broken home.
v. There is a significant relationship between infidelity and broken home.
1.7 Scope of the study
This research is based on the causes and effects of broken homes on academic performance of secondary school students in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The research work covers some of the problems being encountered by the victims of broken home.
The scope of the study is delimited to Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna state. The study is carried out within this particular area because it has about 80% of the neglected and abused children who are victims of broken home in Kaduna state.
1.9 Limitation of the Study
Despite the demands faced by the researcher during the administration and collection of the instrument, the researcher took much care on the negative effect that would have constituted to the reliability and validity of the research during the analysis of the data collected.
1.10 Definition Of Terms
This section of the work defines some of the terms the researchers used in this research work so as to enable the readers have a clear understanding of what the researchers mean.
Divorce: A situation when husband or wife separates from their homes after marriage.
Early Marriage: Legal union of a man and woman as husband and wife before the usual or expected age say (Below 18 years).
Home: A place made up of basically the father and the mother and children thought there may be relatives. Home is a place where comfort, care and love are given to all members.
Broken Home: This is a total or partial separation between couples who were initially husband and wife.
Youths: This refers to the period between the ages of 12 to 30 years.
School: An educational institution where a group of people sharing ideas receive training, discipline and where learning takes place.
Education : This is a systematic process of impacting knowledge for the development of changes and mental power.
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