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This study examine the background study intergovernmental relation, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significant and scope of the study and finally the definition of key terms.
The concept of intergovernmental relations is associated with states having a Federal Administration System where the relationships between the Federal Central on National Governmental and major sub-national unit (Province, regions or state) formally spent out in constitution. Intergovernmental relations have been seen as a system of transactions among structured levels of government in a state. It is also seen as registration in which the parties are negotiating advantageous positions for power, money and problems. Solving responsibility (Colugbemi: 1980).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The goal of intergovernmental relations are said to promote peace and harmony among the three teas of government which can the Federal State and Local Government. To accelerate the achievement of self reliant economy. In so doing intergovernmental relations will help to minimize inter-jurisdictional conflicts among the various level of government. Also to boost greater natural economic integration through the activities of three levels of government. Again to enhance the emergence of co-operative rather than competitive federation there is also need to enhance effective and efficient utilization of available human and material resources among the three levels of government. To help solve the problem of rural and urban poverty. To achieve a situation where there is special need for integrating programmes on a nationwide scale. To look into the situation where states, Local Government unit of the Federal set up have responsibilities with on resources base to perform them (John Nwafor: Unpublished work).
The achievement of the objectives of intergovernmental relations is dependent on some social factors within the Nigerian social system. Some social factors include the political setting and the state of two economies in the nation. Looking at the political setting, the intergovernmental relations is basically based on the three tiers of government that is the Federal, State and Local Government. But come to look at that, the Federal and State Government is said to have more autonomy than the Local Government due to the fact that they are the last tier of government (John Nwafor: Unpublished Work). The other tier of government still tell them that what to do, how to make their own policies, how to elect/appoint those to rule them like the chancellor or chairman and so on. Local Government is still dependent on the other tier of government making them too subordinate and loyal for my liking (Nwoked, Palph 2002).
To this, there should be greater independent of the state and the Local Government in the Federal Government for their survival and performance of fundamental responsibilities. There should be several reforms which should let to the recognition of the Local Government as the third tier of government with relative autonomy and jurisdictional powers as provided for the constitution.
Another problem is the state of the nation’s economy. The nation’s economy really influenced the nature and scope of intergovernmental relations in the Local Government in Nigeria. The wealth of any nation is a key factor in determining its pattern of material relation. Between 1960 and 1970, the basis o fiscal relation between the Federal, State, and Local Government were richer and more power full than the Local Government. But this problem will come to an end if the Local Government has greater control of the tax revenue. The Local Government should control 50% of the tax revenue allocation of its area without the Federal or State Government Interference. They should also receive grant and aids from outside and within the country, making them powerful and independent of their own. Their Federation Allocation Accountant should be granted to them annually or monthly as the case may be. They should be allowed to run their affairs especially when it comes to monetary matters (F Okoll and Anah O. 2002).
In so doing channel, of communication should be at its high level between the Federal, State and Local Government in order to produce an effectiveness due to the fact that an intergovernmental relation is relationship between the three theirs of government.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
To appreciate the depth of courses in the Federal System in Nigeria, one has to follow the recent trend of the raging controversy between the Federal and State Government over the exercise of power or control of revenue resources of Local Government and how not to have assumed the undue prominence given to it as a constitutional question if Nigerian leaders, particularly the Federal level and adhered strictly to the norms of federalism and followed the precedents established by the past democratic government in Nigerian Federation.
In Nigeria, the issue of sharing resources among the three levels of government has remained controversial due to lack of acceptable formular. It generates tension and bat blond among the three tiers of government. This has resulted in setting up of different committees or commissions to prescribe t prescribe the formular to be used. Also there exists a conflict between the Federal State and Local Government area acceptable form was for sharing revenue. For instance, the conflict is usually whether the principal of derivation, need, natural interest of landmass should be used as a basis for the purpose. Even when these principles may be generally accepted as the main basis for working out revenue allocation formular. Conflict might arise following as to which of the principles takes precedence over other as the main outrival for sharing the revenue.
This is the problem of tax jurisdictional which refers to the problem of which aspect of government should collect what revenue over a particular area. These have been serious problems between the Federal, State and Local Government. They are the lowest level of government likewise they collect the least amount of tax revenue, which makes them still stagnant.
Another problem is the existence of control of one level of government by another in any aspect (Abonyi 2005). Local Government is dominated by the Federal and State Government. They do not have their own autonomy making them too dependent on the other levels of government. Mention must be made of the problem of finding the best method of channeling to another especially from the Federal to the Local Government. (Ugwu, 1998:90)
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is the impact of intergovernmental Relations on Local Government Administration in Nigeria, with particular reference to Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
Other objectives of the study include:
i. To identify the relevance of intergovernmental relation in Nigeria.
ii. To identify the administration mechanism used in managing intergovernmental relation in Nigeria.
iii. To examine the impact of intergovernmental relations on Local Government Administration in Nigeria.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of great benefits to Kaduna North Local Government Area and other Local Government Area and other Local Government Areas in Kaduna State. This is because it will be exposed to the challenges it is facing in intergovernmental relations.
It would also be of great significance, to researchers by way of making them aware of problems that have been uncovered by those researchers, so that they would know where to stand from in their subsequent research work in the area of inter governmental relation in Nigeria.
It would also be useful to scholars when dong a likely research. The study would be significant to policy makers and policy implementers as they would make use of the findings and recommendations of the study.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is in the impact of inter governmental relations on Local Government Administration in Nigeria. But due to the fact that there are many Local Government in Nigeria, the study decides or focusing study to Kaduna North Local Government using it as the case study.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is limitation to examining the impact of intergovernmental relations on Local Government Administration in Nigeria. Also this study is limited consequent to the constraint on the desolation of this study other limiting factor of this study will include; high cost of this study will included; high cost of acquiring needed material, lack of required finance and the unwillingness of respondents rebasing information. The study is further limited on the topic of research hence the result of the study cannot be generalized.
1.8 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
In the course of this research work, some concepts were used and for easy and comprehensive understanding of the entire work, these concept shave been explained.
Local Government: This is the third tier of government within the State and is charged with the responsibility and administration of the people at the grass-root. It is also a government established at the level through an Act of Parliament to deal with specific matters as it affects the local people.
Administration: Administration is determined action taken in pursuit of conscious purpose. It is the systematic ordering of affairs and the calculated use of resources, aimed at making those things happen which we want to happen and simultaneously preventing developments that fail to square with our intentions. It is the marshalling of available labour and materials in order to gain that which is desired at the lowest cost in energy, time and money.
Inter-Governmental Relations: The interactions that exist among various levels/tiers of government within a state eventually the state in question has to be associated with a Federal System.
Authority: The word authority (derived from the Latin word auctoritas) can be used to mean the right to excise power given by the State (in the form of government, judges, polices officers, etc), or by academic knowledge of an area (someone that can be an authority on a subject).
Federal: The word federal is derived from the word federation. Federation (Federal System), a type of government characterized by both a Central (Federal) Government and States or Regional Governments that are partially self-governing; a union of states.
Region: Regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law.
Constitution: A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established procedures according to which a state or other organizational is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, that document s may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution.
Socio-Economic: Socioeconomic (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy.
Resources: A resource is a sources or supply from which benefit is produced. Typically resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth or wants, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well being.
Government: A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the case of this broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators, and arbitrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state.
Communication: Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
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