PROTECTION AND REDRESS FOR THE VICTIMS OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMES: AN APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE AND OPERATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

PROTECTION AND REDRESS FOR THE VICTIMS OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMES: AN APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE AND OPERATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

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ABSTRACT

The deplorable condition in which Victims of International Crimes are faced with has been a major concern to the ICC. Hence, in its preamble the Rome Statute of the ICC provides these, “Mindful that during  this century millions of children, Women  and men have been victims of unimaginable atrocities that deeply shock the conscience of humanity”. The ICC in its determined effort to put an end to the impurity committed by the perpetrators of these crimes has made available in its statute provisions for the crimes within its jurisdiction. Thus, the ICC shall have the power to exercise its jurisdiction. over persons for the most serious crimes of International concern as provided in the Statute. The meting out of punishment to perpetrators of international crimes is one of the distinct measures adopted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) in ensuring that victims of international crimes are adequately compensated for the wrong or harm which they have suffered. Another distinct measure adopted is the inclusion of victims’ right in its Statute. These rights are; right to protection, participation and reparation. Also, the ICC has equally established legal frameworks by which victims can have access to these rights, such as the Trust Fund for Victims, Victims and Witnesses Unit, Victims Participation and Reparation Section. In the same vein, the mechanisms by which the ICC exercises its jurisdictional powers are, State Referrals, Security Council referrals and the prosecutors’ initiatives. Notwithstanding, the above mentioned measures provided by the ICC, the problem of protection and redress for the violation of victims rights still remains a hard nut to crack. Hence, this research project sets out to discuss the rights of victims, possible means for seeking redress, limitations faced by ICC in the enforcement of these rights and finally recommendations made to ensure that these rights are adequately protected.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                        Page                                                                                          

Title page        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Declaration      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Acknowledgements    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Abstract -        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi

Table of Contents -     -           -           -           -           -           -           -                      

Table of Statutes -       -           -           -           -           -           -           -          

Table of Cases -          -           -           -           -           -           -           -                      

List of Abbreviation   -           -           -           -           -           -           -                      

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0              Background to the Study       -           -           -           -           -           1

1.1              Statement of the Problem -     -           -           -           -           -           4

1.2              Research Questions     -           -           -           -           -           -           8

1.3              Objective of the Problem -      -           -           -           -           -           9

1.4              Significance of the Study -     -           -           -           -           -           9

1.5              Scope/Limitation of the Study           -           -           -           -           10

1.6              Research Methodology -         -           -           -           -           -           11

1.7              Organisation of the Study -    -           -           -           -           -           11

1.8              Literature Review -     -           -           -           -           -           -           12

1.9              Definition of Terms -  -           -           -           -           -           -           15

CHAPTER TWO: NATURE AND SCOPE OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMES

2.0              Introduction

2.1              Meaning of International Crimes

2.2              Categories of international crimes vis a vis the jurisdiction of the ICC and the  ICTs

2.3              Armed  conflict: the dichotomy between international armed conflicts and non international armed conflicts

 

2.3.1 International Armed Conflicts

2.3.1        Non-International Armed Conflicts

2.4              The Notion of Criminal Responsibility in International Crimes

2.5              Conclusion

 

CHAPTER THREE: PROTECTION, RIGHTS AND REDRESS FOR                                               VICTIMS OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMES

 

3.0              Introduction

3.1       Who is a Victim of International Crimes under the ICC?

3.1.1        Categories of Victims Protected by International Law and The Relevant Authorities

3.2              The Legal Framework and Mechanisms for the Protection and Redress for Victims’ Rights in International Humanitarian Law

3.2.1    Right to Participation

3.2.2    Right to Protection

3.2.3    Right to Reparations

3.2.4    The Victims and Witnesses Unit (VWU)

3.2.5    The Victims Participation and Preparation Section

3.2.6    The Victims Trust Fund

3.2.7    The Office of the Public Counsel for Victims (OPCV)

3.2.8    State Referrals

3.2.9    Security Council Referrals

3.2.10  The Prosecutor’s Initiatives

3.3              Limitations to the Enforcement of Victims’ Rights to Protection and Redress: A Critical Approach.

3.4              Conclusion

CHAPTER FOUR: AN APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE AND OPERATIONS                                               OF THE ICC

 

4.0              Introduction

4.1              The Establishment and Roles of the ICC

4.2              Evaluating the Jurisdiction of the ICC TO try International Crimes

4.3              The Rise and Pitfalls (Challenges) of the ICC

4.4              Case-Review on some Selected Judgements of the ICC on International Crimes: A Critique

4.5              Conclusion

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND                                                      CONCLUSION

 

5.0              Summary

5.1              Recommendations

5.2              Conclusion

Bibliography

TABLE OF STATUTES

Rome Statute of the ICC, 2002

Additional Protocol 1, 1977

Additional Protocol 11, 1977

Geneva Conventions 1949

International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg charter) 1945

International Military Tribunal for East (IMTEE Charter)

Statute of the International Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

Statute of the Special Court of the Sierra Leone (SCSL)

The ICC Rules of Procedures and Evidence

Treaty of Versailles 1919  

The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948        

Law of Hague 1909

Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the event of Armed conflict 1954

United Nations Charter 1945

Convention on the Prohibition of the Developing, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons 1993.

Geneva Convention on Prohibitions and Restriction on the case of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be deemed to be excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate effects (1981)

Convention on the Use of Chemical Weapons (1998)

Ottawa Convention on anti-personal Mines (1997)

Biological Weapons Conventions 1972


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