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post - retirement isaveryimportantstageinhumandevelopment.post - retirement isinevitableinthelivesofworkers,whetherinprivateorpublicsector.Allworkersmustretireonetimeortheotherintheirlives.Itishoweverunfortunatethatthethoughtofpost - retirement toworkersbreedsanxiety.Attitudetowardspost - retirement needsnotbethisnegative,counsellors,behaviourmodifiersandotherhelpingprofessionalsneedtoaddressthisrecurringanddebilitatingworryorconcern.Thispaperthereforeexaminestheconcept,nature,causesandeffectsofpost - retirement anxietyamongworkers.Itfurtherreviewsandrecommendsthreecounsellinginterventionsformanagingpost - retirement anxietyamongworkers;RationalEmotiveBehaviouralTherapy(REBT),financialstimulationcounsellingandbusiness/investmentstimulationcounseling
post - retirement isanintegralpartofaworker’slife.Itisregardedasanimportantstageinhumandevelopmenttheworldover.Peoplewhoplantheirpost - retirement wellinadvanceadjustwelltopost - retirement ,andtheyarelikelytogothroughitasahoneymoonphaseinwhichtheyarequiteactiveormaygothroughanRandR(RestandRelaxation)phaseofrecuperatingfromstressandstrainsofemployment(Odu,1998&Dada&Idowu,2010).
AccordingtoBelsky(1990)post - retirement isatransitionfromtheworldofworkintoaworldoflessrigorousworkactivityandrest,especiallyinrespectofpost - retirement duetooldageorlongyearsofservice.InNigeria,noofficerinthepublicserviceshallbeallowedtoremaininserviceafterattainingthepost - retirement ageofsixtyyearsorthirtyfiveyearspensionableservicewhicheverisearlier(FederalRepublicNigeria,2008).However,somepost - retirement shavenotbeenduetooldageorlongservice,buttoacutdowninexpensesinthepublicandprivatesectorsoftheeconomyaswellaspoliticalfactors(AdeoyeandLegbara,1997).
TherearethousandsofNigerianswhoretireeveryday.Workers,especiallythoseonthevergeofpost - retirement havemanyconcerns.Thechallengesandprospectsofanenjoyablepost - retirement aredifferentforeachandeveryperson.post - retirement anxietyaffectsmillionsofNigerianseveryyear.Concernslike:WhatwillIdowithmytime?WhoamIthatIamlongeraphysician(orteacherormanger)?DoIhaveenoughmoneyorfinancialsecuritytocontinuetoliveonwhenIpost - retired?HaveIsavedenough?Willmyspendinghavetobedrasticallycurtained?CanIcountinmynationalhealthinsuranceprovidersforMedicare?CanIcountonmypensionadministratororgovernmentforpaymentofmygratuityandpension?
Workersarenotleftoutofthiscrossroadsandpuzzles.Theirpayattheendofthemonthhardlytakesthemhome.Theyhavefamiliestofendandprovidefor.Theirwivesandchildrenmusteatinordertolive.Theirchildrenneedtogotoschoolandbewelleducatedinordertobewelloffinlife.Theyneedhousesoftheirown.Theseworkerswhoarestillinservicearepartofthelargersocietywhoread,seeandwatchonthepagesofnewspapersandintelevisionrespectivelynewsofpensionersdyingonthequeuewhilewaitingtobescreenedforpaymentofgratuityandpension;ofotherretireeswaitingforovertwoyearsfortheirpensionandgratuitytobeprocessed;fraudbygovernmentofficialsandpensionadministrators;Pensionersbeingowedovertwoyearsofpensionarrearsandpensionersthreatsofcommittingsuicide.Post-post - retirement LifeStylesAcaseinpointistherecentthreatbyMr.AmadiDennis,whopost - retiredfromEdoStateCivilService,whothreatenedtocommitsuicideonthe14thofFebruary,2014becauseofgovernmentrefusaltopayhisgratuityandpension.Herescindedhis‘valentinegift’toallNigeriansfollowingpleafromeminentNigeriansandfriends.Obviously,theseareenoughtocausepost - retirement anxietyamongworkers.Post-post - retirement LifeStyles
Thecausesofpost - retirement anxietyamongworkerstherefore,areirregularpaymentofpensionandgratuity,lackoffaithintheabilitytosurvivebecauseofwhatbefellotherretireesinthepast,lackofplanningforpost - retirement onthepartofworkers,lackofbusinessskillsandvocationalexpertise,lackofpersonaldevelopment,lackoffundstoventureintobusinessbeforeandafterpost - retirement ;unnecessarydelayinprocessingpensionclaims(Brandon2011).Inordertoovercometheanxiety,workersdevicemeanstocontinuallyremainintheserviceorworkeveninpost - retirement (Brandon,2011).Post-post - retirement LifeStylesThisseemstobethereasonforfalsificationofrecordsandagebyworkersinabidtoremaininserviceevenafterattainingthepost - retirement age.Littlewonderthenwhyseptuagenariansandoctogenariansarestillinthepublicandprivateserviceswhentheyaresupposedtobeenjoyingtheirpost - retirement s.Post-post - retirement LifeStyles
Theactionsandinactionsofgovernmentandotherpost - retirement serviceadministratorsononehand,andthesituationfacedbyworkersontheotherhandareobviouslyanxietyprovoking,especiallytoworkerswhoareyettoretireorbepost - retired.Thereisthereforetheneedtoexaminepost - retirement anxietyinallramificationsandproffercounsellinginterventionsformanagingpost - retirement anxietyamongworkers.Indoingthis,thepaperfocusesontheconceptofpost - retirement anxiety,nature,causesandeffectsofpost - retirement anxietyonworkers,andcounsellinginterventionsformanagingpost - retirement anxietyamongworkers.Post-post - retirement LifeStyles
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Atpost - retirement ,aworkerdiscontinuesfromdoingaparticularworkforwhichhe/shehasbeenknownforalongperiodoftime.Inthepublic/civilservice,thegovernmentnolongerrequirestheserviceoftheindividual,andhe/sheisplacedonmonthlypension.Inmostofthesub-saharanAfricanCountrieslikeNigeria,wheregovernmentbattlestheirregularityinthepaymentofmonthlysalariesofworkforce,promptreleaseofmonthlystipendtothosewhohavedisengagedfromtheservicehasbeenamajorchallenge.Consequently,mostworkersclosetoageofpost - retirement exercisealotoffearsoftheunknownafterpost - retirement .Reallifeexperienceshaveshownthatpensionersoftenfacesomechallengesafterpost - retirement thathaveconsequentialeffectsonthesocio-economicandphysiologicalwellbeing.Itisobviousthatgratuitiesarenotpaidpromptlymostespeciallybymoststategovernmentsandthisthrowsretireesintotherealmofuncertaintyandinabilitytotakesocio-economicdecisions.
Socioeconomic status affects overall human functioning, including their physical and mental health e.g. when post - retired. Income and access to resources mitigate a social problem that ultimately affects retirees, post - retired people in Nigeria this category remain among te most economically vulnerable groups, the majority of post - retired do not work or have fewer options for continued income in Nigeria. They are at risk for rising costs of living, which may place them at an economic disadvantage (social security administration, 2006).
Recent studies indicated that the quality of care afforded to post - retired adults with medicate condition is substandard in Nigeria (Adamu, 2004). Furthermore, older people who work are less likely to maintain employment as their healthdeclines.
Psychological health and wellbeing of the post - retired in Nigeria, the researcher observed thatpovertyistheriskfactorfordeclinesinmentalhealthamongtheretirees.Thoseatthe lower levels of socioeconomic status are often most afflicted with psychological disorder.
Poverty affects the health of the post - retired in significant ways. Some of the post - retired in Katsina were simply unable to afford. The basics of minimal health care and prescriptiondrugs
e.g. the urban retirees. It is not unusual to find this group skipping on their prescriptions, skipping days or cutting the dosage. They may even share prescription drugs with others or take medication that is out of date and therefore ineffective or potentially dangerous. All this amount to drug abuse which is dangerous to their failing health.
Social activities of the retirees are somehow affected when they are unable to afford simple care, e.g. eyeglasses or hearing aids. They are unable to afford simple care, e.g. eyeglasses or hearing aids. They begin to isolate themselves and feel cutoff from the life around them. Many cannot afford simple nutritious food/ three square meal in aday. They prepare to buy the cheapest. Many retirees died of heat exhaustion had no access to air conditioning and were too afraid to open their windows fearing intruders. They died in their sealed apartments; they heat their rooms often using dangerous methods such as firewood andcharcoal.
Some post - retired in Katsina cannot afford even the simple pleasures of social interaction or entertainment. Combine this with physical limitation, health problems like hypertension, diabetes, body pains, arthritis etc. and unsafe community orneighborhoods.
. It is as a result of the above disturbing issues that the researcher decides to study the lifestyleof post retirees inNigeria
Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study is to examine the relationship between lifestyle and health status of post - retiredworkers in Nigeria.
The Specific Objectives of the Study are to;
i. determine the relationship between the health status and food consumption patterns of post - retiredworkers in Nigeria.
ii. determine the relationship between the lifestyle and income of post - retiredworkers in Nigeria.
iii. identify the social network that exists for enhancing lifestyle and health status of the post - retiredworker in Nigeria.
iv. determine the care given by the relations of the post - retiredworkers and his/her lifestyle in Nigeria.
i. What is the relationship between health status and food consumption patterns of post - retiredworkers in Nigeria?
ii. What is the relationship between lifestyle and income of post - retiredworkers in Nigeria?
iii. What is the relationship between social network that exists for enhancing lifestyle and health status of the post - retiredworker in Nigeria.
iv. What is the relationship between the care given by the relations of the post - retiredworkers and his/her lifestyle in Nigeria?
i. There is no significant relationship between the health status and food consumption patterns of post - retiredworkers in Nigeria.
ii. There is no significant relationship between lifestyle and income of post - retiredworkers in Nigeria.
iii. There is no significant relationship between social network that exists for enhancing lifestyle and health status of the post - retiredworker in Nigeria.
iv. There is no significant relationship between the care given by the relations of the post - retiredworkers and his/her lifestyle in Nigeria.
1.3 Significance of the study
This study is going to be of benefit to policy makers, civil society, general public, scholar, academicians and Homeeconomist.
The study will enlighten policy makers, based on facts and what need to be done with regards to post - retiredworkers lifestyle and health status in Nigeria and this could be achieved publications and seminars. For civil society the study will help and provide information on how to save judiciously and prepare for their post - retirement and this could be achieved through awareness campaign during and after their services.
To the general public, the study would provide general information on how post - retiredworkers strive to make ends meet and such information that would facilitate information sharing and discharge, and the general public would have access to this findings through radio and other media publicities. For Scholars, academicians and Home economist, this study would serve as an avenue or source of information which would aid further studies and it would be available for the academicians and scholars in school libraries.
The research work was delimited to lifestyle (nutrition) and health status (depression, diabetes, hypertension and cancer) of the post - retiredworkers population in Nigeria. The study was also delimited to food consumption patterns of retirees in Nigeria. The study was also delimited to the three senatorial zones of Nigerias. The study was be delimited to both male and female post - retiredworkers.
HealthStatus:referstothehealthconditionofpost - retiredworker.
post - retiredworker:Apersonwhohasservedthecivil-service(public
Consumptionpattern:waysthatpost - retiredworkeruseduptheirincomes.Socialnetwork:referstothelevelofsocialactivityofpost - retiredworkers.Care:feelingaffectionorloveandconcernshowntothepost - retiredworker.
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