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1.1 Background of the Study
According to the World Drug Report (2015), the use of illicit drugs has increased throughout the world in recent years. The report further states that a major world trend is the increasing availability of many kinds of drugs to an ever widening socio-economic spectrum of consumers. The report argues that the main problem drugs at global level continue to be opiates (notably heroine) followed by cocaine. For example, for most of Europe and Asia, opiates continued to be the main problem drugs, accounting for 62 percent of all treatment in 2007. Reports from a total of 95 countries indicated that drug seizures increased four-fold in 2005, and more than half of these were of cannabis.
Every country in the world, developed or developing, incurs substantial costs as a result of damages caused by substance abuse (World Drug Report, 2009). The World Health Organization (WHO, 2012) estimates that 1.1 billion people, representing a third of the world population above the age of 15 years, use tobacco, principally in the form of the cigarettes. Of the 800 million smokers, 700 million of them are males in developing countries (WHO, 2012). While smoking rates have been declining in the developed world, they have increased in the developing countries by as much as 50 percent, especially in Asia and in the Pacific region, over the last decade. Addiction to tobacco is therefore a major problem in the developing countries. According to the same report, tobacco sources four million deaths annually, not including prenatal morbidity and mortality. This figure is projected to rise to 1.6 million by the year 2025, 70 percent of which will occur in the developing world if current trends continue (International Narcotics Control Board, 2012).
According to the African Union Ministerial Conference on Drug Control in Africa report (2014), at least 16 countries in Africa have reported abuse of opiates, with prevalence rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 percent for the population aged 15 and above. Twelve countries reported cocaine abuse with prevalence ranging from 0.01 to 1.1 percent for this age bracket. Concurrently, the age of those initiated to drug use is diminishing with large numbers of in-school and out-of-school youth consuming drugs. This phenomenon is even more acute in conflict and post conflict countries, with populations experiencing high stress levels while child soldiers are provided with drugs to enable them to fight.
All the while, Africa’s role in the global drugs supply chain is increasing. Already the continent is the second largest region for cannabis production, trafficking and consumption, accounting for 26 percent of global seizures of this drug in 2001 (UNODC, 2010). By country, the largest hauls in this period were in Kenya, Nigeria, and the Republic of South Africa, while Morocco is said to be one of the main producers of Cannabis resin.
According to a report by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB, 2011), the East African region has become the fallback for drug dealers following increased control of traditional routes through the Netherlands and Spain. The warning followed the discovery of cocaine worth 6.4 billion Kenya shillings in Malindi and Nairobi on December 14, 2004 (Daily Nation, March 2, 2006).
The situation described above is true in developed countries that have been experimenting with such drugs for a long period. However, developing countries are not exempt from the dangers. All countries, Nigeria included, are vulnerable. It has been noted that Nigeria is one of the developing countries in Africa that has lately been experiencing rapid increase in production, distribution and consumption of multiple drugs of dependence (World Health Organization, 2006). In the face of this challenge, a broad spectrum of the world community has demonstrated intense concern about the problem. It is in the best interests of every nation, including Nigeria, to take a firm stand in combating all aspects of drug abuse.
In 1990, the United Nations General Assembly created the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP). The creation of UNDCP will be based on the recognition of the need for an organization that would foster concerted international action against illicit drug production, trafficking and abuse. Its formation is evidence of the determination of the governments of the world, working through the United Nations (UN) to put an end to these transnational phenomena.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Drug use is a worldwide phenomenon, and drug use occurs in almost every community. The specific drug or drugs used varies from country to country and from region to region. Worldwide, the three main drugs of use are cannabis (such as marijuana), opiates (such as heroin), and cocaine. Although individual countries have their own drug laws, in general, drug possession, sale, and use are illegal. Unfortunately, laws are not always equally enforced in countries around the world. Drug abuse (especially among the youth and young adults) is responsible for lost wages, destruction of property in schools, soaring health care costs and broken families.
It is a problem which affects us all as parents, children, teachers, government officials, taxpayers and workers. Despite eradication efforts in countries in Africa, the region still remains a major supplier of some drugs such as cannabis, which is one of the most widely abused drugs. Since the early nineteen eighties, Africa has been experiencing an escalating problem with drug abuse and trafficking. Although reliable information is scarce, data collected under the Eastern Africa Drug Information System/Global Assessment Programme (EADIS/GAP), country mission reports coupled and small-scaled research activities conducted by governments and non-governmental organizations all attest to this (Madaki, 2014).
Nigeria, like many other developing countries, is faced with the social problem of high rates of substance abuse. To make matters worse, the percentage of substance abusers in schools increases yearly despite the efforts to eradicate the problem. Failure to solve this problem not only threatens the life of individuals, but also the economic and social development of the country as a whole.
According to World Drug report (2012), the extent of global illicit drug use over the five years up to and including 2010, is at between 3.4 and 6.6 per cent of the adult population (persons aged 15-64). However, some 10-13 per cent of drug users continue to be problem users with drug dependence and/or drug-use disorders, the prevalence of HIV (estimated at approximately 20 per cent), hepatitis C (46.7 per cent) and hepatitis B (14.6 per cent) among injecting drug users continues to add to the global burden of disease, and, last but not least, approximately 1 in every 100 deaths among adults is attributed to illicit drug use.
With estimated annual prevalence ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 per cent of the population aged 15-64, the use of opioids (mainly heroin, morphine and non-medical use of prescription opioids) is stable in all of the main markets. Worrisome is that drug consumption has developed some key characteristics over the last few decades, against a backdrop of rapid socio-economic transitions in a number of countries. Illicit drug use is now characterized by a concentration among youth. Global estimates suggest that prevalence of tobacco use (25 per cent of the population aged 15 and above).
It is against this background that this study sought to find out the causes and effects of drugs abuse in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The overall purpose of this study is to find out the causes and effects of drugs abuse in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
Specifically, the purpose of the study seeks to:
1. Identify the causes of abused drugs among the students.
2. Identify the commonly abused drugs among the students.
3. Determine the influence of abused drugs on academic performance of
4. Determine the strategies to be adopted to control drug abuse among
1.4 Significance of the Study
This findings when completed will benefits Ministry of Education, academics, policy makers, administrators and teachers to better understand the current situation and accordingly make changes to address the factors that contribute to substance abuse among students in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
The current finding is useful in contributing to the general body of knowledge in this area. Beyond that, however, it also explores the potential of schools to curb the drug problem. This clearly when completed will benefit Ministry of Health academically, policy makers, administrators and teachers to be aware of the factors hindering the effectiveness of the approaches which attempt to curb substance and drug abuse and, where possible, create opportunities to eradicate the problem.
The finding should also help to make teachers aware of the approaches which will help eradicate the problem of substance abuse.
The proposed programme would be useful in educating all Nigerians, youth and adults, on epidemiology of substance consumption.
Thus, this finding would play an important role in reducing, or even preventing high rates of substance use and abuse. Based on the findings, recommendations are made. If followed, these recommendations would be useful to administrators and policy makers in curbing substance abuse in schools through improving existing educational programmes, and striving to develop ones that are even more efficient.
The finding would also help in promoting a drug-free school environment and better academic performance, thus improving the standards of education in the country.
1.5 Research Questions
The specific research questions for this study are:
1. What are the causes of the abused drugs among the students?
2. What are the commonly abused drugs among the students?
3. What are the influences of abused drugs on academic performance of
4. What strategies are to be adopted to control drug abuse among
1.6 Scope of the Study
The focuses of the study is to assess the causes and effects of drugs abuse in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The research work would look into the cause, effects and strategies that could be adopted to curb the menace of drugs abuse among students.
The scope of the research consist of identifying the commonly abused drugs, sources of commonly abused drugs, influence of commonly abused drugs on academic performance as well as strategies to be adopted to control drug abuse.
1.7 Operational Definition of Key Terms
a. Drug:- A drug refers to any substance which when taken into the body, it alters structure or function of the organisms.
b. Drug Abuse:- Excessive use of one or more drugs other than the purpose for which is recommended.
c. Marijuana:- A drugs prepared from dry leave of the hemp plant. It may be sniff or ingested. It is commonly use by smoking.
d. Mass Media: Is the means of imparting knowledge or information through Radio, Television and Newspaper etc.
e. Peer Group: This refers to a group of people that are of equal ranks
f. Causes: Predisposing factors responsible.
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