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1.1              Background of The Study

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. The method of mining is surface and underground which includes mechanized excavation method such as open pit and open cast (strip mining) and aqueous methods such as placer and solution mining.

The term Lead-Zinc is derived from Latin word which is another word for heavy. Lead-Zinc is soft heavy and metallic mineral it also has a high specific gravity (S.G) that can be felt even by hand ranging from 11.35 for lead and 6.9 for Zinc.

In Nigeria mining activities at the moment is predominantly undertaken at the artisanal and small scale (ASM) level. These mining activities are carried out with the use of simple tools and manual technique. The resulting land degradation is extensively massive, while the associated pollution, disease and social unrest have negative consequence on the host communities.

Lead-Zinc ores usually occur together, they are often associated with copper and silver. They occur in commercial quantities in the North East and Central region of Nigeria. LeadZinc ore deposit abound in Nigeria. It is estimated that there are at least 10million tonnes, with an aggregate length of about 6000m (MSMD 2006). The veins cover over 56km in a Narrow belt from Adun in Cross River

State through Isiaqu in Imo state Abakaliki in Ebony state, to Atutu (RMRDC 2004) Adamawa, Benue, Enugu and Nassarawa. The total estimated reserve in 20,000 million tons (RMRCD, 2003).

The estimated reserves is well over 80,000 million tons of Lead and Zinc spread over eight states in Nigeria (NEITI 2007).

Lead ore is a soft, flexible adductive metal, it is bluish white very dense and has low melting point. Lead is found in vein and masses in limestone and dolomite. It is also found with deposits of other metals such as Zinc, silver, copper and gold. Lead is essentially a co-product of Zinc mining or a byproduct of copper and or gold and silver mining. The most common Lead ore mineral is galena, or Lead sulfide (pbs).

Figure 1.1: Zinc ore                                                   Figure 1.2: Lead Ore

Another ore mineral in which Lead is found combined with sulfur is anglecite or Lead sulfate (PbSo4) cerussite (PbCo3).

Zinc ore is a shining, blush white metal, Zinc metal is never found pure in nature, Zinc mineral are generally associated with other metal. Minerals the common association in ore LeadZinc.Lead, Lead-ZincZinc copper, Zinc silver, or Zinc only Zinc also occurs in combination with sulfur in mineral called Zinc blende or sphalerite (Zn) the primary source of Zinc is from sphalerite, which provide about 90% of Zinc product today Zinc containing minerals include hemimorphite, hydroZincite, calamine, franklinite, smithsonitewillemite and Zincite (EPMI 1999).

Zinc oxide is an organic compound, that occurs in earth’s crust as a mineral, known as Zincite however, it is basically synthesized artificially to meet most or its commercial demand. It is a white powdery substance that is nearly insoluble in both water and alcohol, but soluble in most of the acid including hydrochloric acid. It is known to react strongly with aluminum and magnesium power (Chan dramit Bora 2010).

1.2       Statement of Problem

1.      Refusal of the mine managers to give adequate information about the mineral resource.

2.      Absence of geologist at the mining site.

3.      Lack of good roads to access the mine site.

1.3       Aim of The Study

The aim of this research study is to determine the techniques and method of mining LeadZinc at Nahuta, Alkaleria L.G.A of Bauchi State.

1.4       Objective of The Study

i.          To review the existing mining method of the LeadZinc deposit at Nahuta.

ii.         To suggest ways to improved the existing method as where necessary.

1.5       Scope of The Study

The scope of the study research focus on appraising mining method of LeadZincore at NahutaBauchi state. To achieve this details study will be carried out, the result of the research will serve to awaken the mind of the government in taken priority measures on both mining and safety.

1.6       Significance of The Study

LeadZinc has continue to determinate the world economy as a metallic  generating the foreign exchange, high grade metals that is rare and expensive like oil, defense capability. This would create an avenue for prospective investors to come and invest on this sector and create job for the community and country at large.

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