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The study set out to examine the ever increasing problem of the rate of pollution in major cities in Nigeria with emphasis in Edo state. In doing so, the study has on the basis of personal observation and secondary sources examined the effects of environmental pollution in Nigeria. The findings show that environmental problems in Nigeria generally are many, diverse in nature, and are caused by man’s interaction with nature (environment) for exploits in a number of ways-both in the cities; where industrial activities predominate, and rural areas; where agriculture thrives. The study posits that man utilizes air for survival, harnesses land and water resources for domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural and other purposes. Through these activities; man directly and/or indirectly create problems which are detrimental to his health/survival, wellbeing, natural existence and stability.
1.1 Background of the study
It is observed of recent that the role the environment play to a nation’s development process cannot be over emphasize. Apart from being the physical surrounding for natural habitats, the environment provide the basis for human exploits for agricultural, industrial, commercial, technological and tourism development of a society. For this and several other reasons, environmental issues now occupy a center stage in academic discourse and other public fora both at the national and international levels. Recorded evidence has also shown that the environment represents a wide range of the external circumstances, conditions and the things that affect the existence and development of an individual, organism, group (Isaichei 1999) and/or society. In Nigeria for instance, environmental issues did not gain official prominence until the 1988 Koko toxic waste dumping saga which also brought to the fore the exigent need to establish the Nigeria Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Federal Ministry of Environment and other relevant agencies, ostensibly to tackle environmentally related issues, in the country. These include issues such as environmental pollution, sanitation, depletion of ozone layer, desertification, flooding, erosion, poverty, bush burning, deforestation, soil conservation etc. All these mentioned above are a pointer to the fact that issues of environment and in fact environmental pollution which forms the basis of this study has taken a center stage in the nation’s (Nigeria’s) development process. Environmentally minded scholars: Ocheri (2003:174), Gbehe (2004), and Aja (2005:114) have associated environmental pollution with human activities and albeit persistent human interaction with the environment. Research has also shown that as the population of a country grows/increases with attendant pressure on the environment especially in the wake of improved technologies, environmental abuse and pollution is nevertheless heightened with corresponding effects on lives of people and other living organisms, (Ocheri, 2003: 175 and Hausers, 1971). It has been observed further that man through industrial, agricultural and the ever increasing urbanization process, security and terrorist activities tend to directly and/or indirectly pollute the environment. Jande (2005) and Aja (2005:114) in their separate observations, also in tandem with the foregoing agree that unrestricted use of pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and indiscriminate dumping of refuse, excreta and animal dung as well as spillages from refineries, large scale bush burning etc are perceived as some of the leading factors of environmental pollution in Nigeria.
Environmental Pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life. Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods. The industrialization of our society, the introduction of motorized vehicles, and the explosion of the human population, have caused an exponential growth in the production of goods and services. Coupled with this growth has been a tremendous increase in waste byproducts. The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastes into waterways, the spewing of thousands of tons of particulates and airborne gases into the atmosphere, the "throwaway" attitude toward solid wastes, and the use of newly developed chemicals without considering potential consequences have resulted in a lot of environmental disasters throughout the world.Environmental pollution usually occurs as a result of energy conversions and the use of resources which leaves their by-products behind in water, soil or air. Technology has begun to solve some pollution problems, and public awareness of the extent of pollution will eventually make government bodies to be more proactive rather than reactive and also undertake more effective environmental planning and adopt more effective antipollution measures.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The industrialization of our society, the introduction of motorized vehicles, and the explosion of the human population, have caused an exponential growth in the production of goods and services. Coupled with this growth has been a tremendous increase in waste byproducts. The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastes into waterways, the spewing of thousands of tons of particulates and airborne gases into the atmosphere, the "throwaway" attitude toward solid wastes, and the use of newly developed chemicals without considering potential consequences have resulted in a lot of environmental disasters throughout the world. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to holistically investigate the effect of the ever increasing problem of the rate of pollution in major cities in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the rate of pollution in major cities in Nigeria with emphasis on Edo state. But for the completion of the study, the researcher intend to achieve the following sub-objective;
i) to ascertain the effect of air pollution on the wellbeing of the populace
ii) to evaluate the effect of waste management on the health of the populace
iii) to investigate the effect of oil spillage on the economic development of the state
iv) to investigate the effect of solid waste management on the environment
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher?
H0:air pollution has no significant effect on the wellbeing of the populace
H1:air pollution has a significant effect on the wellbeing of the populace
H0:waste management has no significant effect on the health of the populace
H2: waste management has a significant effect on the health of the populace
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
At the completion of the study, the findings shall be of great importance to the federal environmental protection agency as the study seek to proffer avenues for effective environmental management and pollution control in the state and country as a whole. The study will also be of importance to waste management board as the study seek to proffer solution to effective waste management and control of environmental pollution. It shall investigate the effect of solid waste on the environmentThe study shall analyze strategies for effective waste management practice. It shall provide a reference source of information for environmental experts.
The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to the researcher.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the ever increasing problem of the rate of pollution in major Nigerian cities, with emphasis on Edo state. But in the cause of the study, there are some constraint which limited the scope of the study;
(a) Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b) Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c) Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and mold spores may be suspended as particles. Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's also called smog. Some air pollutants are poisonous.
Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value, the ambiguity in developing cohesive health strategies, and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation)
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the datacollection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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