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1.1 Background of the Study
The environment we live in provides support for our survival as well as other living things. Globally, efforts are being made to make people aware about the need to protect the environment. One of the main causes of environmental degradation is improper waste management in the disposal of solid waste (Vivek et al., 2013). It is a major cause of pollution and outbreak of diseases in many parts of the world. What aggravates the situation is the fact that crisis related to the environment is of global concern and there is usually no permanent solution to environmental problems.
The generation of solid waste is an important byproduct of socio-economic activities. The definition of solid waste varies among countries. Generally, waste generated from industrial sector, commercial, domestic, institutional and municipal services are included in municipal solid waste (MSW). The ever increasing population, along with rapid urbanization and industrialization directly affects the amount of urban and MSW generated (Singh et al., 2011). Presently, waste is generated faster than other environmental pollutants, including greenhouse gases (GHGs) (Hoornweg et al., 2013). The ever rising population has resulted in immense pressure on demand for food, shelter and on other natural resources leading to various environmental problems including waste generation and waste management. According to Adejobi and Olorunnimbe, (2012), industrial advancement, growing urban areas and rapid population growth are the major contributing factors to solid-waste generation in many developing countries.
Waste management is the process of collecting, transporting, processing or disposing, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste includes all items that people no longer have any use for, which they either intend to get rid of or have already discarded and these include: packing items, garden waste, old paints containers, vegetables, metals etc. (Enete, 2010). Poor waste management has been a major problem to human health and existence, affecting both rural and urban areas. A clean environment influences good health and good health further affects the productivity of man. Adogu et al., (2015), reported that proper waste disposal management is essential to sustain healthy living conditions in any environment. Strict adherence to appropriate waste management practices in any community will insulate the inhabitants from detrimental and hazardous environmental conditions and improve the living standard of the people.
According to Al-Khatib et al., (2015), and Hilburn (2015), most communities in developing countries often turn to waste disposal methods that have proven to be destructive to human health and the environment, such as open dumping and burning (or unregulated landfills) because they feel they have no other options to manage their solid waste. This suggests that most developing countries do not practice sustainable waste management.
Banga (2013), reported in her work that participation in solid waste management activities depends on the level of awareness, household income, educational level and gender. Ayodeji (2012), studied the waste management awareness, knowledge and practices of secondary school teachers in Ogun state and concluded that all the teachers were aware and knowledgeable about waste management even though they possessed negative waste management practices. He reported appreciable awareness and knowledge about waste disposal among people in Nigeria but indicated that they are only aware of the crude and traditional methods and are oblivious of the modern methods such as incineration and recycling. Adeyemo and Gboyesola (2013), stated that, the attitude of people towards waste management can be affected by their level of knowledge and awareness of waste management. They also reported that homes with waste bins engage more in proper way of storing waste than homes without waste bins.
In Ghana, Asuamah et al (2012), reported that, people attitude towards recycling and waste management showed no significant effect on gender, employment and educational statuses. Addaney and Anarfiwaah (2015), concluded that some public awareness being created with little supervision yielded results due to the rising indiscriminate disposal and littering in the municipalities. They added that abysmal solid waste practices have clogged most of the few available drains creating stagnant water for insect breeding and floods during rainy seasons. They also noted large open spaces in the Municipalities dotted with heaps of refuse sited close to residential areas as contributing factors. All these pose risk to both public and environmental health.
Waste management activities generate potential environmental benefits if managed properly (Gentil et al, 2009). There has been hardly any effort in the past to create community awareness, either about the likely perils due to poor waste management or the simple steps that every citizen can take. This could have helped in reducing waste generation and promote effective waste management. But this scenario has changed. Nowadays more and more people are taking interest in environmental issues, as they have started to experience the ill effects of ecological issues. It is the realization of the need to highlight the socio-economic aspects of wastes generation and management and their implication for solid wastes managements that provided a case for the present study of Sabon Tasha, Chikun.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Household waste generation increases due to increase in population and household activities. The cost of maintaining the environmental quality also increases as government now have much more wastes to dispose. Inadequate infrastructure, financing lack of clear roles and responsibilities of these authorities and uncollected and uncontrolled disposal of waste have made the task more difficult, hence public health and sanitation is threatened in several growing cities (Martin et al., 2008).
Household waste management and practice is among the problems affecting Sabon Tasha. Despite the setting up of Kaduna State Environmental Protection Agency (KEPA), the situation has remain largely characterized by indiscriminate dumping of wastes, such as food waste, paper, polythene, scrap metals etc. In virtually everything every part of the area and have constituted problems like heap waste which can cause road/rail blockage, air pollution, open air burning. The smell of offensive odours cannot be taken for granted. This problem is further compounded by hawkers who dump their waste indiscriminately everywhere. The indiscriminate littering of household waste in Sabon Tasha has reached an alarming rate. Evidence shows that the indiscriminate disposal of household waste has a multiplicity effect on the environment. This greatly degrades the environment of its aesthetics and even causes diseases. The increased use of disposable plastics, cups and polythene materials for packaging goods have given rise to new waste disposal problems. Some of these materials are non-biodegradable and when burnt gives rise to air pollution.
One of the greatest problems facing Sabon Tasha today is that of household waste management. Waste disposed poses the greatest environmental problem. The rate, in which waste is generated, surpasses the rate at which it is evacuated. Upon this premises, one tends to wonder what could actually be responsible for this environmentally unfriendly character. Is it the orientation or the psychology of the people lack of central waste dumps or is it a deliberate attempt of polluting the environment or perhaps the various authorities responsible for waste disposal cannot cope with the volume of waste been generated. Another problem of waste management is the diversity of the waste being generated which results in a variety of potential health and welfare effects, the treatment of which is complicated by the fact that each type of waste often demands specific and yet different methods of disposal and management. Waste is an age-mate of mankind and part of the normal working system of man’s activity on the face of the earth. Though it is an integral constituent of all human activity, its presence today is becoming unbearable causing serious problems in the environment. Waste in ancient times was biodegradable and non-toxic and could hardly cause hazards. Today, copious waste generation pollutes many quarters in Sabon Tasha Every facet of man’s endeavour now face the danger of reckless throw-away; he wastes food, clothes, money, time, shoes, utensils, furniture, paper, machines, metals etc. It has now come to a point where household waste stands face to face and side by side with man. The reason is man’s technology to master and conquer his world (environment). Even though Kaduna State Environmental Agency (KEPA) trying to maintain environmental sanitation, more needs to be done to manage the wastes been generated. The introduction of disposal containers and bins is a right step in solving or reducing this problem. However, these containers are often left to fill and spill garbage on the ground causing a very unpleasant sight. This results in irritation not to mention the offensive odours coming from such garbage area with the infestation of rats, cockroaches, insects, flies and other disease vectors and rodents. Several cases are reported about outbreaks of diseases due to poor waste handling and disposal facilities. For example, in 1994, 61,960 cases of cholera in 4,389deaths were reported in the state of Angola, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania, Africa (UNDP, 1997).
Current situation in Kenya shows that town authorities collects household waste and dump it at designated sites but no proper treatment is given to the waste so piles of the waste are seen in residential areas (Kuria et al., 2011). The need for this study arises as an urgency to update waste management strategies and also educate the people leaving in Sabon Tasha their waste disposal.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions were asked in order to achieve the set objectives;
1. What are the types of waste are generated in Sabon Tasha?
2. What are the management practices adopted by households in Sabon Tasha?
3. Who are those involved in creating household waste?
4. Who are those handling waste disposal?
5. How can indiscriminate dumping of waste be curbed?
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to investigate household waste management practices in Sabon Tasha, Chikun Local Government Area.
1. To assess the type of waste generated
2. To identify the management practices being adopted by household in the area
3. To identify the hazards of household waste to the inhabitants
4. To recommend appropriate measure to curb indiscriminate dumping of household waste
1.5 Scope of the Study
This work is limited to the confines of Sabon Tasha with particular emphasis around Kanti Anga, Ungwan Matari, Ungwan Barde, Ungwan Dariwan, Railway Station, Ungwan Bulus, Sabo GRA and Ungwan Gimbiya area because of the large concentration of people around these areas. This research shall focus mainly on the management strategies of household waste using the waste generated in Sabon Tasha as a case study. Recommendations will be made based on the findings and results obtained.
1.6 Justification of the Study
The world is becoming increasingly urbanized. The outbreak of diseases and the associated environmental problems are increasing in frequency and magnitude. However, government at the local, state and federal levels with non-governmental agencies have shared little concern to the issue of improper household waste management in the study area. The research therefore, intends to suggest a better waste management practice in the study area.
In the study area, much solid wastes are being generated by the households on daily basis. The waste is usually left unclear for about two weeks before the waste are reluctantly rumpled into gutters or at the designated sites. The households use various methods in during this. These ranges from drums and buckets to refuse bin with lid or without lid and packed by boys using wheel barrows to empty it.
This methods seen not to be effective, this is due to the fact that the refuse/ wastes smell in the compound and eventually leads to outbreak of disease such as diarrhea, cholera et cet era. This work shall therefore suggest a better practice of waste management in the study area. This will
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