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This research work was conducted to ascertain the extent of use of instructional materials for teaching and learning of integrated science and English Language in junior secondary schools in Enugu urban, Enugu state. Five research questions guided the study. A survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 50 teachers both integrated science and English language and 210 students were drawn from the 14 secondary schools in the Enugu urban public schools. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and the data collected were analyzed using frequency count, percentage and means. The findings of the study showed that most of the needed instructional materials were not available, the available instructional materials were grossly inadequate, and the only instructional materials utilized by teachers are textbooks, charts / specimen and chalkboard. The factors that constrained the provision of instructional materials in the schools were insufficient fund in the schools and lack of requisite knowledge and skills for improvisation by teachers. The government should improve the utilization of instructional materials by employing more integrated science and English language teachers and prompt payment of teacher’s salaries and allowances
1.1 Background of the study
Instructional materials are materials or tools used to enhance or enlighten the effective teaching and learning process among students in schools. Teaching and learning are concerned with the training of students, but learning is a complete process. It can however be defined as a change in disposition, a relatively permanent change in behaviour overtime and this is brought about by experience, learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skills, knowledge, perceptions, facts, principles, new information at hand etc Adeyangu (1997). Learning can be reinforced with learning aids of different variety because they stimulate, motivate as well as arrest learner’s attention for a while during the instructional process. Learning aids are instructional materials and devices through which teaching and learning are done in schools as in Enugu urban secondary schools (junior). Examples of learning aids (instructional materials) includes visual aids, audio – visual aids, real objects and many others like laboratory apparatus which are test – tube, Boiling tube, conical flask, spring and chemical balance, separating funnel, filter paper, burettes, retort stand, pipette, beakers etc for effective stability of teaching and learning of integrated science. Again materials for effective teaching and learning of English language are use of textbooks, specimen or chart and chalkboard for demonstration. The same holds in English language, students can take a tape recorder as an instructional material in language laboratory in part of oral English. Alkinson (1995) pointed out that the language laboratory is based upon on an extension of the tape recorder, and the simplest may be just a signal tape recorder with slight modification, so that students have control over one or two tracks for recording to their own speech, this arrangement of instruction allows the students to listen and respond and replay and repeat when necessary and the students will learn effectively by building their own vocabulary. Visual aids are designed materials that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come in form of wall – charts illustrated pictures, pictures, pictorial materials and other two dimensional objects. There are also audio – visual aids. These are teaching machines like radio, television and all sorts of projection with sound attribute, Inyang (1997). Audio visual aids in teaching and learning of integrated science and English Language embrace all possible media presenting information effectively through the topics teaching in the subjects. According to Chinese proverb which says “what I hear I forget, what I see I remember, what I do I know”, audio – visual aid can be projected and non – projected aids. Therefore teaching aids are meant to improve and supplement, also implement and give a sophisticated analysis based on the topics taught whether English language or integrated science in junior classes. In the English language, the use of textbooks are much indispensable to teach in schools, most of the teachers for junior secondary schools in this Enugu urban always task their student to purchase oral English textbooks, so that whenever the lesson is taking place they can pronounce with the teacher by their textbook. Therefore, students who pronouncing a word with the teacher can easily build him/her in speaking good English and master oral English. In integrated science, students will have the knowledge of how water can be separated from kerosene by the method called separation techniques, they will know how the light rays disperse and also know the functions of organs, tissues and cells in the human body by the use of laboratory apparatus, specimen, charts and textbooks. Integrated science is a combination of the main science subject which includes chemistry, physics and biology. Therefore, teaching of integrated science give the junior students the knowledge of chemistry, physics and biology which they could understand and forge ahead in senior classes. It is interesting to note that large percentage of junior students in Enugu urban that undergo teaching and learning with some learning aids achieve more performance in English language and integrated science. They do so consciously because it is known that the students who make the use of instructional materials have impacted more positive effect on learning outcomes as their cognition experience during teaching and learning which improves and revealed by use of instructional materials. Yusuf (1999) asserted that instructional materials are these materials and devices used to supplement the written or spoken words in the process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes, ideas and skills to the learners. He listed these materials as including chalkboards, charts, graphs, diagrams, exhibits, flannel boards, flat pictures photographs, prints, maps, models, motions pictures, objects, specimens and textbooks. Others include equipments, excursion or field trips and demonstrations, the necessity of instructional materials in the teaching – learning process for the attainment of the goals of instruction is not disputable. Ikwuakam (1997) observed that these materials bring the learner face to face with reality. They concretize ideas, concepts, facts, principles and generalizations. They are dependable for capturing the learner’s imaginations. Azikiwe in Offorma (1994) asserted that these materials facilitate learning and to save the teaching – learning process from being merely the talk approach. They are needed for the achievement of curriculum objectives. The adequate provision of instructional materials for teaching is important but it is useless filling up rooms with materials which may end up getting spoilt without being put into use for a day. It therefore means that the effective utilization of instructional materials is necessary for the achievement of the objective of instruction. The utilization of instructional materials according to olaitan (1999), involves the teacher manipulating these materials to facilitate the teaching learning process. The extent of use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and English language stimulates on the operational definition of perception as it is reflected and focused on variable and contextual factors as having effects on how perception takes places. The individual perceives as a result of variables surrounding the interpretation, this is why a teacher supposed to organize his or her method of teaching around the aim and objective he/she intends the student to achieve, in order to attain the objective. Instructional materials are perceived as very important in the teaching – learning of English language and integrated science.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research is an exploratory study that seeks to examine the effectiveness of teaching and learning by the use of instructional materials in junior secondary schools in Enugu urban which will give change in behavior, comprehensible in learning and make them to be vibrant in knowledge. Education is the bedrock and key to any national development. It helps in producing the needed manpower for both economic and technological development. It also teaches skills to the youths thereby preparing them for a useful living. The acquisition for practice skills and basic knowledge by student for activities in integrated science and English language require the good manipulation of skill oriented instructional materials. The integrated science and English language curricula are expected to achieve certain objectives, which the realization may be difficult without an adequate provision and effective utilization of certain materials in the teaching – learning process. The power attitude of students toward integrated science and English language, high cost of some instructional materials and poor performances of students in English and integrated science in (JSSCE) are some of the fundamental issue which educational policy makers need to resolve. Salami (1992), stated that adequate provision of facilities and equipment and their proper utilization have always been positively correlated to good performances have been blamed on in adequacies and ineffective utilization. The teaching of integrated science should be dynamic, practical oriented and activity based. This would only be possible when the necessary instructional materials are adequately provided in the secondary schools. This would make the teaching and learning of both integrated science and English to be effective, motivating and capture students’ interest. The benefit from the use of instructional materials are only realized when the available materials/facilitates are utilized by teachers in teaching-learning process. Udosen (1993) said that most teachers have formed the habit of adopting the verbalistic and theoretical method as a way of teaching subjects in secondary schools; this could be as result of unavailability of instructional materials in the schools. Mkpa (1990), reported that even when instructional materials are available in schools, most teachers still do not use them in teaching. The non-utilization of instructional materials in the teaching learning process by teachers, according to Eshiet (1996), result to rote learning with all kinds of misconceptions, poor motivation, dampening of aspirations, killing of morals and poor skill development.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to determine the adequacy and the utilization of instructional materials in the teaching / learning of integrated science and English language in Enugu urban junior secondary schools.
Other objectives of the study are:-
1. Identify the instructional materials available for teaching integrated science and English language.
2. Assess the adequacy of the available instructional materials in the schools.
3. Find out the extent to which teachers utilize the available materials in teaching integrated science and English language in the schools.
4. Identify the factors constraining the provision of instructional materials in the schools.
5. Determine measures for maximizing the utilization of instructional materials in teaching of integrated science and English language in junior secondary in Enugu urban
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there are no instructional materials available for teaching integrated science and English language.
H1: there are instructional materials available for teaching integrated science and English language.
H02: there are no factors constraining the provision of instructional materials in the schools
H2: there are factors constraining the provision of instructional materials in the schools
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study would provide the ministry of education with some useful information which would make them appreciate the need to work out effective means of providing the essential instructional facilities for junior secondary schools in Enugu urban and as well as Enugu state at large. The ministry would do this by establishing instructional resources centre where there materials could be easily made available. Government would also see the need to organize seminars and conference for serving teachers on the improvisation and utilization of instructional materials for teaching the subjects in the schools. The finding of this research would provide integrated science and English teachers with some useful information which would help them see the need for effective utilization of instructional materials in the teaching – learning process. Students would also benefit from the findings of the study as use of instructional materials by teachers in the teaching of integrated science and English language would arouse their interest in the subject and help them acquire skills in integrated science and English. Officials of education services and curriculum planners in the areas of integrated science and English language would benefit from the findings of the study. They would be provided with some information on the need for making instructional materials available for use by integrated science and English language teachers, (Basic Outline of the National Policy on Pre – Primary and Primary Education 2004).
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
These covered the extent of use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of English language and integrated science in Enugu urban of Enugu state. It identified the various instructional materials available, assessed their adequacy and extent of utilization by teachers in the urban schools, determined factors constraining provision and measures for improving utilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning integrated science and English language. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL: Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional material. There are many types of instructional materials, but let's look at some of the most common ones.
EFFECTIVE TEACHING: Effective teaching is more than just the successful transference of knowledge and skill or application around a particular topic. Effective teaching ensures that this surface approach to learning is replaced by deeper, student driven approaches to learning that analyse, develop, create and demonstrate understanding
ENGLISH LANGUAGE: English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca
INTERGRATED SCIENCE: Integrated Science is a revolutionary introductory science curriculum developed at Princeton, intended for students considering a career in science.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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