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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Gender diversity and the inclusion of more women in boards of directors and top executive management positions have the potential to add value to organisations. For instance, gender diversity can result in more social sensitivity when solving problems (Woolley et al., 2010) and increased diversity in thought and result in better company performance (Ernst & Young, 2009).
When board members include more gender diversity, a firm may increase its chances of effectiveness due to better understanding their stakeholders' needs, leading to better risk management and general business practice. Decision-making would potentially be enhanced through adding new ideas and perspectives to board and executive management meetings. Groysberg & Bell (2013) found from a survey that 90% of female directors and 56% of male directors said that women add fresh perspectives and thought diversity to boards of directors.
Internationally, numerous studies show evidence of a positive relation between gender diversity on boards of directors and financial performance of firms. Joy et al. (2007) found that companies with higher numbers of women on their boards significantly outperformed other companies, with a 42% higher return on sales and a 53% higher return on equity. Also, Curtis, Schmid & Struber (2012) studied data from more than 2000 global companies and found that female representation on boards was associated with better performance and share prices, including lower volatility in earnings and share prices.
Similar findings were reported by Carter, Simkins & Simpson (2003), Smith, Smith & Verner (2006), Francouer, Labelle & Sinclair-Desgange (2008), Krishnan & Parsons (2008), Reguera-Alvardo, de Fuentes & Laffarga (2015) and Willows & van der Linde (2016). Consequently, gender diversity on the board sends a positive signal to the market that the organisation focuses more on corporate governance and that the company is doing well, thus improving the firm’s reputation.
Larkin, Bernardi and Bosco (2012) indicates that interaction between the firm’s recognition and multiple female board directors is associated with higher overall returns and lower negative returns for stockholders, as measured by market prices of the firm’s common stock. We therefore expect that there is a positive and significant relationship between board gender diversity and firm financial performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Gender diversity is equitable or fair representation between genders. Gender diversity most commonly refers to an equitable ratio of men and women. The challenge with gender diversity among academicians in universities could be as a result underestimation of one gender and making them feel inferior; this could be that the idea and the skills of a gender could be ignored and therefore treated as less important which might hinder the organisation or firm’s growth. Finally, several researches have been carried out on the gender diversity but not even a single research has been carried out on the gender diversity among academicians in universities in Lagos state.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine gender diversity among academicians in universities. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. to determine the differences between male and female academicians in universities in Lagos state.
2. to determine the factors affecting gender diversity among academicians in universities in Lagos.
3. to determine the influence of gender diversity among academicians in university of Lagos.
4. to proffer possible solutions to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference between male and female academicians in universities in Lagos state?
2. What are the factors affecting gender diversity among academicians in universities in Lagos?
3. What is the influence of gender diversity among academicians in university of Lagos?
4. What are the possible solutions to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Gender diversity among academicians has no significant effect on their job performance in universities in Lagos.
H1: Gender diversity among academicians has a significant effect on their job performance in universities in Lagos.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on gender diversity among academicians will be of immense benefit to the entire universities in Lagos state in the sense that it allows men and women to share their different viewpoints, ideas, and insights; a gender-diverse workforce enables better problem solving in any firm. It will also educate all the universities in Lagos not to underestimate any gender at all in that any gender whether a male or female can be a channel to which the establishment grows. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and as basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on gender diversity among academicians in universities is limited to Lagos state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
GenderThe state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones).
Diversity The fact of many different types of things or people being included in something; a range of different things or people.
AcademiciansIs a person who teaches or does research at the university.
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