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This study assessed the availability and used of Instructional Materials by secondary school Economics teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study was conducted with four research objectives; also, four research questions were answered while four null hypotheses were tested. The study adopted survey research design. The sample for the study was arrived at using proportionate sampling technique, hence the total of thirty two (32) teachers and three hundred and thirty-six (336) students responded to the questionnaire. The analysis of the data collected was done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The non-parametric statistic of Chi-square (X2) was used to test the four null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Findings among others shows that: there is a significant difference in the opinions of teachers and students on the availability of instructional materials in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state; and that there is a significant difference in the opinions of the respondents on the availability of instructional materials and students‟ academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state. Based on the findings, recommendations were made that; adequate instructional materials for the teaching of economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state should be provided; and since instructional materials can aid students‟ academic performance in economics, teachers should ensure their availability in the school.
1.1 Background to the Study
Instructional materials provide the physical media through which the intents of the Curriculum are experienced. They are collections of materials and equipment that processes instruction and training; such materials and equipment may be derived from the objectives of teaching and learning. They assist in putting across information and enable both teaching and learning to be effectively done. The importance of instructional materials in enhancing effective teaching and learning of economics cannot be undermined due to the positive impact it has on the level of assimilation of students. Teaching-learning of Economics in schools without instructional materials such as, chart, maps, curves and graphs etc will not bring out the expected results. Most researchers have discovered the problems of inadequate instructional materials as one of the major problem that lead to poor academic performance of students in Economics.
The materials being used in teaching were called instructional materials teaching aids, they are to assist the achievement of the stated Educational goals and objectives. This means that teaching aids are helping in teaching and learning and also provide help in developing similar skills in solving relevant problems in Economics for instance, students negative attitude to Economics is due to poor perception of the course; Economics as a subject is very simple but because of lack of qualified and experienced teacher to handle the subject makes it difficult to the students in the secondary schools during teaching and learning.
The influence of using instructional materials in promoting students‟ academic performance in teaching and learning in Educational development is indisputable. The teaching of Economics in Nigerian Secondary Schools needs to be properly handled.
Economics contributes to the nation‟s economic development, hence the need to be taught thoroughly if it is to meet the educational and economical development. Moreso, that Economics is one of the core subjects in Senior Secondary Schools and as a vocational subject, it cannot be taught effectively without the use of appropriate instructional materials (Ajayi, 2000).
Instructional materials, since the teacher alone cannot provide all the needed conditions for an effective teaching and learning, other supporting materials should be provided. Students as learners, learn better when most of the senses are appealed to the instruction and use of instructional materials has added a new dimension in the positive promotion of the teaching and learning process. It provides the much needed sensory experiences for an effective and meaningful behavioural change. Instructional materials are means for improving the quality of teaching for effective academic performance of Economics students.
Today, teachers under rate the use of instructional materials in most of their teaching exercises and some of these materials are not usually available for teachers‟ use. Most teachers cling to verbal instruction as the only way to impart knowledge. The researcher is of the view that something has to be done to change teachers‟ negative attitude towards the teaching of economics. The researcher is also of the view that utilization of instructional materials would make teaching and learning of economics interesting and comparatively easy. This study is of the view that instructional materials for teaching economics should be selected, supplied and be used effectively. The realization of this objective depends on the utilization principles. These principles include; the learner‟s characteristics, behavioural objectives and instructional constraints.
In making use of any instructional material, such material must be previewed that is, having full knowledge of the material, prepare the environment where it will be used; prepare audience by means of making sure that the material used will attract attention, arouse, motivate and provide the rationale and finally present which of course, could be used in the beginning, middle or end of a lesson (Tella, 2007). The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning of Economics is not void of quality instructor. In order to give quality Education to the younger generation, there is need for employment of more competent, experienced and qualified economics teachers. The need to identify suitable instructional materials, by which students can be made to trap the extent of the subject easily, is the focus of this study.
However, the use of instructional materials in secondary schools, would help in improving the teaching and learning and academic performance of students in economics respectively. Instructional materials which are Educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales in Richard (2005), was of the opinion that availability and the use of instructional resources would make discovered fact glued firmly to the memory of students. Emmanuel (2008), also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lesson should do much to banish apathy, supplement in adequacy of books as well as arouse students‟ interest by giving them some thing practical to see and do and at the same time helping to think things out themselves.
Selection of materials can help indepth understanding of lesson by the students in which they make the lesson attractive, thereby capturing their attention and motivating them to learn. Before, the instructional materials are maps, chart, and so on, which are used to enhance the teaching and learning of Economics, but presently there is technological advancement where film slide, Ipad, laptop, projector, television and internet system are the instructional materials which helps in teaching and learning process. With the above reasons, there is need to carry out research to know the availability and the extent at which instructional materials is being used for the teaching-learning of Economics in secondary schools in Kwara state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Instructional materials make teaching and learning more understandable, meaningful and easy. But inspite of the benefits of instructional materials to teaching and learning, the scarcity of the instructional materials has hindered, to some extent, the efficiency of teaching and learning of Economics.
In view of this difficulties, most teachers of economics still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of economics education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning (Mammudu, 1996). The researcher has taught for a number of years in some secondary schools and had visited a number of secondary schools as a resource person. Through these experiences, the researcher observed that most teachers in secondary schools in the state did not fully make use of instructional materials in the teaching of economics to their students. This negligence of the effective use of the instructional facilities and materials in teaching and learning of economics common to both the trained and untrained teachers affected the academic performance of students in economics in secondary schools in Kwara
Hence, the question of academic performance and students‟ performance in SSCE is therefore usually discussed both in and outside the academic circles. In the last few years, it has been observed in most secondary schools that a high percentage of students are performing very poorly in Economics in National Examinations for example, WAEC and NECO (Examiner‟s Report, 2009) due to ill motivated behaviour of the students towards the Education, lack of professional teachers, existence of lazy teachers and lack of teaching facilities and equipment (David, 2014). Some of these reports have shown that there are poor academic activities in secondary schools which obviously leads to rampant failure in external examinations among secondary schools students. It is also observed that student‟s performance in Economics in the Senior
School Certificate Examination (SSCE) has continue to be low over the years. Otanyemi (2000), in Mohammed (2003), states that there has been General outcry about poor students‟ performance in the Senior Secondary School Examination especially in the social sciences. This study will examine the student‟s academic performance in Economics as it relates to the availability of teaching resources among senior secondary school students in Kwara state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Objectives of this study are to;
1. identify the available instructional materials in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state;
2. investigate whether or not the availability of instructional materials has influence on the academic performance of students in economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state;
3. determine whether teachers use instructional materials in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state; and
4. find out whether teachers‟ improvise instructional materials in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state.
1.4 Research Questions
This research work sought to answer the following questions;
1. what instructional materials are available in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state?
2. what influence does availability of instructional material has on students‟ academic performance in economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state?
3. does teachers use instructional materials in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state?
4. do teachers of economics improvise instructional materials in teaching of economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state?
The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the conduct of this study;
there is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and students on the instructional materials that are available in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state;
availability of instructional materials have no significant influence on the performance of students economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state;
there is no significant difference in the opinion of the respondent on the teachers use of instructional materials in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state;
there is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondents on the teachers‟ improvisation of instructional material in teaching of economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state.
This study was based on the following assumptions;
1. that non availability of instructional materials affects student academic performance in economics in Kwara state.
2. that availability of instructional materials does not have any influence on students‟ academic performance in economics in Kwara state.
3. that there is no impact of the teachers use of instructional materials in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state.
4. that teachers‟ improvisation of instructional materials does not have influence in teaching of economics in senior secondary schools in Kwara state.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Findings from this study will be significant to students, teachers, curriculum planners, ministry of education and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials will enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question because, learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials. The use of instructional materials will give the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at difference levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility.
The study will enhance teachers‟ teaching effectiveness and productivity. The use of instructional materials provides alternative channels of communication which a teacher can use to compress information and make them more vivid to his learners. It also provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner‟s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. As a result, teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students‟ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.
To the curriculum planners, findings from this study will help them in making proper planning for the place of instructional materials while planning economics curriculum. However, the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of economics is not only the issue, but also the appropriateness of the selected materials by the teacher to the topic at hand which sometimes make the lesson less effective and thereby render the materials useless. Findings from this study shall reveal to the curriculum planners that, economics contents must focus not only on making teachers competent at using such instructional materials, but at the same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of instructional materials that enhances teaching and learning of social studies goals and objectives.
This study will recommends the State Ministry of Education through the Universal Basic Education Commission to purchase instructional resources required for effective teaching of Economics and make them available in Schools throughout the State. The finding from the study will encourage the Ministry of Education to ensure that these materials are purchased and supplied to Schools. This will go a long way in ensuring that the pupils and students receive quality education. It will also recommend to the Ministry of Education on the need to train and retrain Economics teachers through workshops on how to use instructional materials, how to improvise and source them from local available resources.
The study is also significant to the society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government‟s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of life and work.
Finally, this research work will contribute to knowledge as a reference material for scholars in the research field.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study is designed to assess the availability and use of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Kwara state, Nigeria. The study aims at finding whether variable like; instructional materials, teachers‟ improvisation and use of instructional materials are related to students‟ academic performance. Hence, the study shall be delimited to 32 economics teachers and 336 students in Senior Secondary School two (SSII) in the senatorial district of
Kwara North, Kwara South, and Kwara Central in Kwara state.
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