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Urbanization is a major driver of pressure on land use occasioned by encroachment into peri-urban agricultural lands which is as a result of a trade-off on rural land between agriculture and urban growth. Based on this, the study examines the impact of urbanization on peri-urban agricultural land use in Igabi local government, Kaduna state. The study employed the use of LandSat/GIS imagery of 1995, 2005 and 2015 as well as cross sectional survey to generate data. Data were analyzed using frequency tables, percentages, multinomial logistic regression and the multiple regression model. LandSat result shows that built-up areas increased from16.46% to 19.43% and 20.99% in 1995, 2005 and 2015 respectively while agricultural land use increased from 9.34% to 18.27% and 27.72% in 1995, 2005 and 2015. High forest area decreased by 55.0% between 1995 and 2005 and 27.9% between 2005 and 2015. Then water body decreased from 2.30% in 1995 to 1.21% in 2005 but rose by 2% in 2015. Degraded forest increased from 32.55% in 1995 to 43.39% in 2005 and then declined to 36.52 in 2015. The cross sectional survey shows that 64% of the respondents agreed that availability of market influenced agricultural land use pattern while 82.6% of the respondents agreed that the type of land ownership of the residents have affected agricultural land use in the study area. Also, 92.9% of the respondents agreed that shortage of land has affected agricultural land use while 94.4% of the respondents believed that distance to farmlands affected agricultural land use and 89.3% equally agreed that high demand for agriculturalproduceaffects agricultural landusein the study area. Results from the regression analysis shows that build-up areas, degraded forest and water bodies were significant factors affecting agricultural land use in the study area at 5% significance level. Findings from the logit regression shows that land ownership is 3.18-07 times less likely to have a strong negative effect on the livelihood of dwellers while source of income is 0.22 times less likely to have a negative effect on the livelihood of settlers. The change in income is 0.18 times less likely to have a negative impact on the livelihood of dwellers in the study area. Also land conversion is 667882.7 times more likely to have a strong negative effect on the livelihood of dwellers while displaced off from farmlands was 433248.8 times more likely to have a negative effect on the livelihood of dwellers in the study area. The study therefore recommends policy intervention to serve as a check to peri-urban agricultural land use in order to control excessive land sub-division and intensifying and diversifying agriculture in order to supplement land loss and improve the livelihood of dwellers in the study area.
1.1 Background to the study
Land is a gift of nature to mankind and serves as a basic resource for wealth creation and human
survival. Societal development depends largely on land use by individuals and government for
various economic and social purposes. From an economic perspective an essential feature of land
is that it is scarce and subject to competing uses. According to Wu (2008) land use is the backbone
of agricultural economies as it provides substantial economic and social benefits which is
necessary and essential for economic development.
Land use is related to the conservation of land from one major use to another general use (Nanvati,
1951). According to Lillesand and Kiefer (1987); “The term land use relates to human activities
associated with specific piece of land, features present on the earth surface. Therefore, land use is
generally seen as the various activities carried out by man in order to satisfy his needs. Land use
can also be seen as a description of how people utilize land for socio-economic activity. Urban and
agricultural land uses are two of the most common land use categories where land use for housing
purpose could be seen as residential or urban use, while land use for farming activities could be
seen as an agricultural land use. At any point in place, there may be multiple and alternate land
uses for different purpose. The need for increase food production, residential settlement,
infrastructural development and economic development has led to different changing pattern of
land use due to human activities. Population growth and urban expansion are primarilyresponsible
for changes in the land use pattern of an area. For instance, as population increases, construction
of dwellings also increases thus engendering conversion of cropland and forest land to settlements
(Olaleye, Abiodun and Asonibare 2012). According to Cunningham, Cunningham and Siago
(2005), rapidly increasing human populations and expanding agricultural activities have brought
about extensive land use changes around the world.
Urbanization is a common phenomenon to both developed and developing countries. In developed
countries, it is associated with economic advancement where urban centers are seen as engine of
growth by enhancing rural development through creating market for agricultural products.
However, in developing countries urbanization have positive and negative effect (Teketel, 2015).
In Nigeria, as population increases, land becomes scarce. The growing population requires
increasing area for agricultural production and, hence, large areas of forestland need to be opened
up. As the rate of land area expansion falls short of the growth rate of population, land becomes
scarce relative to labour. Urban environment belongs to one of the most dynamic systems on the
earth due to heterogeneous nature of urban land uses with the consequence of rapid land use/land
cover changes (Ndabula, Averik, Jidauna, Abaje, Oyatayo and Iguisi 2013).
Urbanization arises from an increase in population that put pressure on demand for more
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