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Content                                                                           page

Title Page  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i
Declaration -      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii
Certification        -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii
Approval Page    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iv
Dedication -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       v
Acknowledgement      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi
Table of Contents       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       viii
Abstract     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       xi

1.1    Background to the Study     -       -       -       -       -       -       1
1.2    Statement of the Problem    -       -       -       -       -       -       4
1.3    Objectives of the Study               -       -       -       -       -       -       6     
1.4    Research Questions    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       7
1.5    Significance of the Study     -       -       -       -       -       -       7     
1.6    Scope of the Study     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       8
1.7Operational Definition of Terms    -       -       -       -       -       9

2.1    Introduction       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       11
2.2    Conceptual Framework of the Study      -       -       -       -       11
2.2.1 Motivation  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       11    
2.2.2 Evolution of Motivational Concepts        -       -       -       -       -       14
2.2.3 Motivating Employees in an Organisation               -       -       -       19
2.2.4 motivational techniques in an Organisation    -       -       -       20    
2.2.5 Factors Affecting Motivation -       -       -       -       -       -       23
2.3    Theoretical Framework                -       -       -       -       -       -       24
2.3.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory     -       -       -       -       26    
2.3.2 Herzberg’s Two Factor Model       -       -       -       -       -       -       29
2.3.3 Alderfer’s ERG Theory -       -       -       -       -       -       -       29
2.3.4 Achievement Theory   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       31    
2.3.5 McGregor’s Theory “X” and Theory “Y” -       -       -       -       32
2.3.6 Ouchi’s Theory Z        -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       33
2.3.7 Goal Theory       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       35
2.3.8 Equity Theory    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       37    
2.4    Empirical Studies        -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       38
2.4.1 Impact of Motivation on Workers’ Performance       -       -       38
2.4.2 Effect of Motivation on Organizational Productivity  -       -       40    
2.5    Summary   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       43

3.1    Introduction       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       44
3.2    Research Design -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       44    
3.3    Population and Sample Size         -       -       -       -       -       -       45    
3.4    Sources of Data Collection    -       -       -       -       -       -       46
3.5    Methods of Data Collection   -       -       -       -       -       -       47    
3.6    Methods of Data Analysis     -       -       -       -       -       -       48
3.7    Justification for Instrument’s        Appropriateness -       -       -       49    
3.8    Summary   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       49

4.1    Introduction       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       51
4.2    Demographic Characteristics of Respondents -       -       -       52
4.3    Data Presentation & Analysis        -       -       -       -       -       -       55
4.4    Major Findings of the Study -       -       -       -       -       -       62


5.1    Summary   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       64
5.2    Conclusion         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       65
5.3    Recommendations      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       67
5.4    Limitations of the Study-      -       -       -       -       -       -       68

Bibliography       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       69
Appendices                -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       72


This research work evaluated the impact of motivation on employees’ performance in an organisation 2003 - 2013. In recent time, many organizations have been investing on the development of their staff via motivation, even recent literatures have consistently established a strong linkage between the productivity and the level of motivational needs offered by an employer, despite which most organizations deliberately refuse to recognize this salient factor which has adverse implications on the attainment of organizational goals and without a proportionate increase on the performance of staff. Hence, the major objective of the study is to examine the contribution of motivation to the efficiency of staff performance. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources; the instrument of primary data includes questionnaire and interview, while secondary source utilizes published and unpublished text materials. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentage, mean score and test calculation. After analyzing the data from various sources, the research discovered that viable employee compensation and a workable reward need, improved working condition and friendly atmosphere and, assurance of job security and fringe packages and constant opportunity to gain promotion and advancement enhance performance of employees. The study therefore concluded that motivation helps to build workers’ confidence and improved competence, it boosts morale and gives assurance of reward and remuneration, and also induces workers to function to their full capacity. In line with the findings, it was recommended that the organization should recognize that effective motivational measure is a value-added activity rather than cost-added in its operations; they should look beyond cost in motivating workers. More so, it was strongly recommended that the management should sponsor its workforce for different programmes in different field of studies in order to enhance performance and efficiency.



1.1     Background to the Study

Although there is general agreement among psychologists that man experiences a variety of needs, there is considerable disagreement as to what these needs are and their relative importance. There have been a number of attempts to present models of motivation which list a specific number of motivating needs, with the implication that these lists are all-inclusive and represent the total picture of needs. Unfortunately, each of these models has weaknesses and gaps, and we are still without a general theory of motivation. All organisations are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustained high levels of performance through people. Consequently the subject of adequate motivation of workers as derived from the so many attempts made by management practitioners is to look for the best way to manage so as to accomplish an objective or mission with the least inputs of materials and human resources available.

In the opinion of the researcher, managers nowadays understand that the best way through which they can efficiently unlock their employees’ potential is by creating an atmosphere where their employees are highly motivated and also committed to the achievement of the organizational goals. But they also understand that doing this requires a lot of time, dedication and energy. Sometimes even a well laid plan can go wrong, so in order for human capital to have the maximum impact on organizational performance, it must be supported, nurtured, and allowed to work to its best advantage. In this regard, behavioural scientists have primarily attested that increased output is a function of human welfare. This concept out-scripts attention being focused on machine alone because at the heart of the enterprise and its entire structure, the human resource is the most significant factor in the production process (Wilson, 2005). However, some managers deliberately refuse to recognize this factor even though they know its relevance. There is a relationship between low job morale and low productivity. Ensuring that staff remain motivated can, according to Henri (2011), help boost productivity, staff loyalty and levels of management. Essentially, organizations, no matter their nature, always aim at achieving their corporate goals, otherwise the survival of such enterprise will be more of a dream than a reality. The success of any organisation is often measured by the degree of its productivity (Cole, 2004).

The researcher was of the view that, to stay ahead of competitors or to be competitive (at the minimum), organizations are continually seeking better motivational tools in order to maintain the best performing staff members within their organizations and also attract other experts within the industry they operate. In a competitive environment of this nature, it is imperative to ensure that factory workers are properly motivated. Motivational tools and incentive needs have significant role to play within today’s business environment. But for any motivational need to work effectively and efficiently, it must be imaginative, inspirational and carefully selected to tap into the aspirations and interest of the recipients. Get it right, and the company will be viewed as a good employer and a cool place to work (Bitter, 2002).

Gilbert (2005) posits that to deliver a successful motivational and incentive programme, the objectives had to be clearly communicated to everyone and ensure proper understanding of the need.

A lot of theoretical concepts such as content and process theories, principles and techniques of management have evolved in response to the challenges of motivation. In general, management authors have tended to view motivation as a key component of the managerial function of leading or directing. However, leading or leadership style, although an important factor in determining the attitude of employers towards assigned job responsibilities, is not the only determinant, other managerial functions such as planning, controlling, staffing and organizing also play a role. In any serious and competitive society workers are one of the tools for economic progress. Their welfare is taken into serious consideration because without a dedicated workforce, an organization crumbles.

In spite of all the apparent attendant problems of motivation, and productivity, every organisation necessarily seeks means of ensuring continuous productivity, which would be geared towards the accomplishment of organisational goals. The organisational system under study (Seven-Up Bottling Company Plc) cannot be said to be different in any way, in terms of producing the results for which it was set up. It is against this backdrop that this research work is to be conducted to examine the impact of motivational needs of factory workers on their performance.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Recent literatures have consistently established a strong linkage between the productivity and the level of motivational needs offered by an employer. Despite these, most organizations deliberately refuse to recognize this salient factor which has adverse implications on the attainment of organizational goals. Ensuring that workers remain motivated is a factor in boosting the level of employees’ performance, workers’ loyalty and commitment to the goals of the company. Motivation may not necessarily be in monetary forms. The non-financial needs of motivation exert almost similar influence on worker output (Gbadamosi, 2003). Problems of inadequate motivation do arise because of certain individuals who come into the work situation with differences in expectation, behavior and outlook. Problems differ from one organization to another, depending on so many factors, some of which are how to survive in a competitive environment, technological advancement, financial resources, working environment. The study therefore intends to investigate how far Seven-UP Bottling Company has motivated its workers in a competitive environment that they are operating, and the social economic situation of the state and the country at large. Also, how employees view the organization in terms of how they are motivated.

Although, there has been a great deal of work directed at assessing motivational impacts on employees’ performance, this has remained unsolved. Coles (2004) said “it is virtually impossible to quantify exactly the contribution of motivation to performance.” Armstrong (2006) also said that it is difficult to identify the result of any given motivational tool on an entire performance. He also said that one couldn’t attribute a given unit of output to any specific motivational technique.

Based on the above context, one can categorically say that it is difficult to trace the impact of motivation on the employees’ performance. Increment in output of any soft drink could have been as a result of any other factor than motivational effectiveness. That is, these underlining problems of measuring the impact of motivation on employees’ performance raised a lot of controversy and form the basis of the research ahead.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to assess the impact of motivation on the performance of employees, the study further aims to achieve the following specific objectives:

i.        to appraise the criteria used in motivating employees in Nigeria.

ii.       to find out the factors related to employee efficiency, effectiveness and performance in the company.

iii.      to examine the role that motivation plays in ensuring productive performance of employees in an organisation.

iv.      to know how motivation can be improved upon to derive good performance of employees in an organisation.

v.       to identify the problems related to the motivational needs of the employees in the organisation.

1.4     Research Questions

In addition to the objectives of the study, the following research questions would be addressed:

                               i.            What are the criteria used in motivating employees in an organisation?

                             ii.            What are the factors related to efficiency, effectiveness and performance in the company?

                          iii.            What role does motivation play in ensuring productive performance of the employees in an organisation?

                          iv.            How can motivation be improved to derive good performance of employees in an organisation?

                             v.            What are the challenges associated with motivation in the organisation?

1.5     Significance of the Study

This research project has both theoretical and practical significance in the following ways:

First and foremost, it contains adequate literature on motivation that relates to organisational set-up in general and Seven – Up Bottling Company, Kaduna in particular. This broad based literature provides sufficient materials not only for general public but future researchers who may face the challenges of inadequate literature of motivational needs and its management in Nigeria.

The findings of this study would be of strategic importance to the company on its policy decisions on motivational needs for its workforce.

The in-depth research on this topic would undoubtedly produce relevant field findings that can have practical significance to the management of staff matters in similar companies in Kaduna. Beside, the numerous challenges that thwart the company’s zeal for efficient motivational needs for its workers toward enhancing their performance, the study provides practicable recommendations aimed at further improving the current state of motivational needs of the company.

In addition, this study will generate further interest amongst future researchers as the challenges, dilemmas and contradictions within the motivational needs cannot be resolved through a single research endeavour such as the one at hand. Therefore, the need for further studies is thus stimulated in this study.

1.6     Scope of the Study

The research work is intended to cover the output of employees of Seven Up Bottling Company main depot in Kakuri industrial layout, Kaduna. The da

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