LEVELS OF MERCURY, CADMIUM AND ZINC IN GUTTER SEDIMENT IN SELECTED ROADS IN UYO METROPOLIS

LEVELS OF MERCURY, CADMIUM AND ZINC IN GUTTER SEDIMENT IN SELECTED ROADS IN UYO METROPOLIS

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ABSTRACT

Levels of mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) were studied in five major roads in Uyo metropolis. Result of total Hg ranged from 0.05mgkg-1 in Calabar-Itu Road to 0.675mgkg-1 in 4 Lanes. Total Cd varied from 0.60mgkg-1 to 1.90mgkg-1.While total Zn ranged from 3.750mgkg-1 to 6.170mgkg-1. Available Hg concentration was low (0.008mgkg-1 to 0.05mgkg-1) and value was within permissible limit. Available Cd ranged from 0.035mgkg-1 to 0.100mgkg-1 with a mean of 6.24mgkg-1. while available Zn (0.335mgkg-1 to 1.503mgkg-1) was highest in Cal-Itu Road.  On the average, 4 Lane had the highest while Cal-Itu Road had the least concentrations of the studied elements. The wide variability of the elemental concentrations across the studied area is attributed to greater variability of input concentration from a variety of sources from where they are transported to respective locations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                        Pages

Title Page         

Certification       --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     i

Dedication --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     ii

Acknowledgement      --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     iii

Abstract    --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     v

Table of Contents       --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     vii

List of Table      --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction      --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     1

1.1   Objectives of the Study      --     --     --     --     --     --     3

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   Literature Review of Related       --     --     --     --     --     4

2.1   Concept of Heavy Metal      --     --     --     --     --     --     4

2.2   Sources of Heavy Metals in the    --     --     --     --     --     5

2.2.1         Automobile Emission --     --     --     --     --     --     5     

2.2.2         Agriculture Activities --     --     --     --     --     --     6

2.2.3         Industrial Activities    --     --     --     --     --     --     7

2.2.4         Solid Wastes as Sources of Heavy Metals     --     --     8

2.3           Heavy Metal Toxicology      --     --     --     --     --     10

2.4           Heavy Metals in Soil and Gutter --       --     --     --     11

2.5           Heavy Metals -- --     --     --     --     --     --     --     12

2.5.1         Zinc --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     15

2.5.2         Cadmium --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     17

2.5.3         Mercury     --     --     --     --     --     --     -       --     18

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Materials and Method --     --     --     --     --     --     21

3.1   The Study Area --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     21

3.2   Climate     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     21

3.3   Soil and Geology        --     --     --     --     --     --     --     22

3.4   Vegetation         --     --     --     --     ----   --     --     --     23

3.5   Field Studies     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     23

3.6   Laboratory Analysis    --     --     --     --     --     --     --     24

3.7   Statistical Analysis     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     27

       

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Results and Discussion       --     --     --     --     --     --     28

4.1   Some Physical Properties of Gutter Sediment in  Uyo

Metropolis         --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     28

4.2   Chemical Properties of Sediment from Different Location       29

4.3   Total and Available Hg, ed & Zn in Five Selected Locations    34

4.4   Relationship of Some Soil Properties    --     --     --     --     37

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations       --     --     39

5.1   Summary --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     39

5.2   Conclusion and --     --     --     --     ----   --     --     --     40

5.3   Recommendations      --     --     --     --     --     --     --     40

        References        --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     41

        Appendix   --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     --     49

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1     Some Physical Properties of Gutter Sediments from

Different Location       --     --     --     --     --     --     29

Table 2     Chemical Properties of Sediment from

Different Location       --     --     --     --     --     --     32

Table 3     Means of Total and Available HG, Cd and Zn across

the five location         --     --     -       --     --     --     36

Table 4     Correlation Matrix of Soil Properties     --     --     --     39

Table 5     Anova Table for Total  and Available Hg, Cd and Zn    49-50 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABBREVIATION

EC          -            Electrical Conductivity

OC          -           Organic Carbon

TN          -            Total Nitrogen

P            -           Phosphorus

Ca          -            Exchangeable Calcium

Mg          -            Exchangeable Magnesium

K            -            Exchangeable Potassium

Na          -            Exchangeable Sodium

EA          -            Exchangeable Acidity

ECEC       -           Effective Cation Exchange Capacity

P. B.S     -            Percentage Base Saturation

Min         -            Minimum

Max        -            Maximum

SD(±)     -            Standard Deviation

CV          -            Coefficient of Variation  

 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Gutter sediment within urban roads represents a collection of multiplied contributing source of pollution including automobile emission, urban infrastructure, degradation and erosion, and other particulate non-point sources from short and long-range atmospheric deposition (Vermelte et al, 1987, 1991: Sutherland 2003). Harmful substances emitted by exhaust and wear from vehicles are deposited and accumulated daily on road gutters and surrounding soils together with primary and secondary particles from other anthropogenic (demolitions/ construction industrial activities etc) and natural sources (short and long range transport of suspended sediments). These dispositions on roads are commonly referred to as road/gutter deposited sediments (RDS/GDS) San-Miguel et al. ( 2002).

       The natural fraction of gutter deposited sediments consist of materials, plant materials and atmospheric depositions (Rogge et al, 1993). The anthropogenic fraction contains high concentrations of heavy metals originating from brake linings, the combustion of fuels and the wear and tear of pavement’s as well as tires and vehicle body (Davis et al., 2001; San-Miguel et al., 2002) and also industrial activities, municipal solid waste incineration and metals smelting.

       Interest in heavy metal pollution in gutter deposited sediments (GDS) has been





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