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The prison is a custodial and correctional institution, functioning within the ambit of penal sociology. The core value of the prisons is to keep custody of both convicted and unconvicted persons. It is expected of the prisons to give back to the society changed persons who longer pursue criminal life style, using the correctional instruments available to the and finally rehabilitation cum reintegration. Imprisonment is a remedial therapy. The government should be proactive in crime control by attacking the roots of crime rather than the branches. Poverty must be fought in sincerity and honesty by the government. Our value system must be revived and entrenched into the polity rather than using the prison as a cooler and dumping ground for her citizens. Prisons department should be adequately funded.
Both the maxist conflict, structural functionalist, symbolic interationist model are considered akin to explain the phenomena of crime and rehabilitation as a treatment strategy of crime. Instruments used to analyse this phenomena are sampling, interviews and other literature relevant to the topic under probe.
The focal point of this study is on penology and correctional sociology. The strength lies more on correction rather than punishment as a deterrent, retributive measure in the control of crime. Changes in punishment; according to Foucault (1991):
Foucault argues that these changes involve a fundamental shift in the nature of punishment. In the early 18th century, punishment focused on the body. It involves direct infliction of pain to suffer the offender, toward the late 18th – 19th century, this had changed to the punishment of the soul. The punishment consisted of a loss of rights – particularly the right to liberty. Furthermore the intention was to reform the offender rather than simply to make him suffer.
The Prison is defined as a place, grounds, buildings, declared by the minister of internal affair now interior affairs under prison Decree No 9 of 1972 as prison, (2008) Nkwocha, Daniel Ibeabuchi, page 50.
Crime is an aspect of human retrogression, it has primitive roots. In the views of Radzinowlez and King, 1977. “A crime is a conduct that is forbidden by law and for which punishment is prescribed”.
Rehabilitation, the process of returning a criminal to pursue a non-criminal life upon discharge. It ensures that inmates are not just dischargedinto the streets of society. It does this by providing therapy or vocational and educational training.
One disturbing trend is that inspite of the rehabilition programme, the number of discharge inmates that return to the prison, is on the increase. Criminologist like Lan Taylor, Paul Walton and Jock Young (1973), their views were similar to those of the Marxist theorist, they accepted that the key to understanding crime lay in the material basis of society. A close monitoring of discharge convicts reveal that most times, the discharge inmates suffer stigmatization, which leads to recividism.
In lending credence to this fact, William Chambliss (1972) argues that the greed, self interest and hostility generation by the society motivate individual into crimes.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The high rate of criminal activities in Imo state is causing the government and inhabitance of the state sleepless night. These crime range from, armed robbery targeted more at financial, institutions, child trafficking, and kidnapping, rigual killings. It is appalling that the group much more involved in heinous crimes comes from the active Labour force of the state, which spells out a bad omen for the state in terms of economic growth and development. This is because indigenous and foreign investments can hardly thrife in any state where the prevalence of crime is acute. It is therefore important to investigate, into such a social malice as to find ways to ameliorate it. One wonders who some active youths take to crime, when there are better avenues of making wealth such as education and skills acquisitions centres scattered all over the state.
1. Could it be traced to the fact that people are ignorant of the fact that education and skills acquisition is a veritable means of sustainable livelihood and gainful employment.
2. Could it be that the high crime rate may be attributed to the absence of industries and large market in Imo State.
3. Could it be as a result of the fact that the prisons lack the needed infrastructure for effective rehabilitation of discharged inmates considering the fact that recidivism is still on the increase.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The main objective will dwell on the relationship between crime and rehabilitation as a tool in controlling crime by the prisons service, in Imo state.
The specific objectives are:
1. To examine the various reasons that account for high crime rate in Imo state.
2. To find out the problems confronting the prisons service in the effective delivery of the aims and objectives of the rehabilitation strategy.
3. To find out possible ways of assisting the prisons services to solicit assistance from bodies that have interest in human welfare.
4. On the strength of the finding by advocating remedies and make recommendations.
SCOPE OF STUDY
Attempt will be made to stress on the relationship of the prison and other allied agencies in the control of crime particularly the criminal justice particularly the criminal justice system. Secondly, how this relationship affect rehabilitation of inmates in the prison is of interest.
Also to be considered are the gains and pit falls of rehabilitation.
Life after imprisonment remains the cardinal point of rehabilitation as a panacea to crime but there are still some negative social elements or forces that militate against the gains of rehabilitation, they are Recividism and stigmatization of discharged inmates, it will also interest the study to highlight on them.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study will without doubt be beneficial to allied crime control agencies such as police, the state and security service. It is a significant outlet to usher in welfare organization who albinitio thought the prison to be a closed system.
Criminologist, policy makers, will also benefit immensely.
Reduction in crime rate through rehabilitation will incorporate inmates into the main stream of national economy and make them responsible citizens.
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
As suggested in the primary objective of study, the following hypothesis could be tested.
1. That there is a significant relationship between crime and rehabilitation.
2. That there is no significant relationship between crime and rehabilitation.
3. There is relationship between skills acquisition and crime
4. This is no relationship between skills acquisition and crime.
DEFINITION OF TERMS:
1. CRIME: An act or omission prohibited by law for the protection of the public and punishable by the state in a judicial proceeding in its own name.
2. CRIMINALITY: This is the state of being criminal.
3. DEVIAT BEHAVIOUR: This is a behaviour that is not acceptable by a particular society.
4. PUNISHMENT: This is a penalty received by an offender to serve as deterent and retributive consequence.
5. PRISONS: Legally authorized agency that takes custody of both convicted and unconvicted persons.
6. PRISON: A place delimited and declared as such by the law of the state and created to ensure restraint and custody of person’s accused or convicted of crimes.
7. IMPRISONMENT: The act of keeping somebody under incarceration.
8. REFORMATION: Ability to make of criminal to change from deviant behaviour or refrain from criminal behaviour.
9. RE INTEGRATION: The act of helping or creating the enabling environment for discharged person to adapt into the society.
10. REHABILITATION: Turning a criminal into a self-sustaining self-actualized, socially aware and socially involved in individual.
11. RECIVIDIST: Habitual crime commuter or jail bird in Prison parlance.
12. RECIVIDISM: Irresistible tendency towards committing crime.
13. STIGMATIZATION: The act of Isolating, avoiding individuals or groups due to perceived phobias attached to such persons.
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