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Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must start with the development of human resources. Much then is said that formal education remains the vehicle for social-economic development and social mobilization in any society (Philips, 2012).
Teaching is an attempt geared towards assisting the learner to change his behaviour in a specific context. Therefore, the desire to find effective qualified teachers has persisted. The persistence in finding effective and qualified teachers is the realization that the quality of teachers is proportional to the quality of their students. The quality of students in any particular country, according to Aina (2010) is proportional to the quality of her citizenry. These are among other reasons why individuals have expressed fears about availability of adequate and education or science teachers for the Computer Education. Nigeria has realized this fact, hence the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1991) mandated that all teachers in our educational institutions from pre-primary to the university will be professionally trained.
Teachers are the foundation of any good educational programme. If the teachers are poorly prepared, the educational programme no matter how well- structured would collapse. According to Fafunwa (2009), the most compelling and persistent educational problem in Africa is the training of a competent teacher. He observed that in all social, political and economic spheres of activities, there is always the complaint of inadequate or need for trained manpower. He also noted that adequate training cannot take place without competent teachers to handle the programmes.
1.2 Background of the Study
Computer education as it is stipulated by the National Policy on Education (2004), in Nigeria is one of pre-vocational subjects in the Junior Secondary Schools. The aim and objectives of the Federal Government in these pre-vocational subjects mostly is that at the end of nine years of passing through, it should posses an appropriate level of literacy, numeracy, communication, manipulative and problems solving skills in order to be employable and useful to oneself and the society at large.
The use of computer has imparted positively in education (teaching methodologies, research and development, information technologies) and other related areas. The integration of computer into the teaching and learning process in Nigeria institutions (nursery, primary, post-primary and tertiary) is of welcome development toward improvement and advancement of education in line with the global standard. But it would be meaningless if facilities were not provided, resource personnel were not available to operate and maintain them (Braide, 2015).
These problems will affect the positive impact of such technological integration in our schools since the integration of computer is considered as a major tool for the teachers and student for an improved teaching and learning process.
Offorma (2014), maintained that teachers have to use different facilities to teach students of different abilities and interests. The teachers of Computer studies should try to make class activities interesting to the students. This can be done by identifying the needs and interests of the students and thereby incorporates them into the class activities. Making use of proper methodology to teach a particular subject matter can help to attract and maintain the interest of the students to take active part in the subject. This will make mastery of the subject easy and successful in examinations.
Johnson (2014), has observed that what facilitates students’ understanding and acquisition of knowledge have been found to be dependent on such learning environment, the teacher’s knowledge level and the instructional approaches used. He went further to stress that the teacher characteristics, teaching approaches among others, are aspects of the teacher that are considered very important in influencing students’ learning and understanding.
Computer science is one of the science subjects that deals with study of a machine that can receive instructions, recalls these instructions, carry out the instructions and gives a feedback on its actions. The use of computer in our educational sector is a growing phenomenon, because searching for work in internet requires the knowledge of computer. The use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in education also requires in-depth knowledge of computer (Combs, 2012).
According to Olaitan (2010), the prominent role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in educational system requires the knowledge of computers; since our schools are sweeping along on the incoming tide of new teaching techniques. The old methods used in teaching and learning of computer science are becoming increasingly inadequate. It has now become apparent for the government to provide adequate materials meant to redesign the computer education at all levels.
A well developed scientific and technological base are conditional to any national human and material development. Nigeria has been classified as one of the developing nations and has continued to make a break through by emphasizing much on science and technology thereby making inclusive of computer education in the curriculum of the junior and senior secondary schools (Combs, 2013).
The Federal Government of Nigeria decided to introduce computer education into the nation’s secondary school system in 1987 during the Ministerial Council Meeting of the National Council on Education. This was followed by the inauguration of the National committees on computer education the same year. The functions of the committee among others included, planning for dynamic policy on computer education and literacy in Nigeria as well as devising clear strategies and terminologies to be used by the Federal and State governments in introducing computer Education.
According to Philips (2013), the polices are poorly implemented due to poor training and orientation of key implements (teachers). Through constant practice, workshop and seminars, the teachers will be equipped in relevant knowledge needed in computer, which are appropriate for effective teaching and learning of computer education. Computer requires practices and only the teachers that know the practices can teach it very well.
The non availability of Hardware facilities in acquisition of computer study is one of the problems that affect the teaching and learning of computer education mostly in Junior Secondary schools. Okon (2012), reported on the declining standard of teaching which is done without exposing the students to any form of practical experiences. The acquisition of computer education with the hardware facilities is just like going to school without pen and books.
Evoh (2014), emphasized that secondary school education is essential of the creation of effective human capital in any country. The need for the conclusion of computer science in the education curriculum of the Nigerian secondary schools cannot be overemphasized. In this technology-driven age, every one requires ICT competence to survive and this calls for early acquisition of computer skills by students.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
There are problems associated with the teaching and learning of Computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools. These include inadequate provision of facilities, lack of trained personnel, financial constraints and organizational constraints. The first comparative analysis in educational system, its progress and lack of progress dates back to the middle of 18th century. According to Fafunwa, (2010), shortage of teachers, classrooms, fund and teaching materials are the factors that mostly hinder the progress of education. He went on to say that, education rose at a faster rate and emerged as the largest local industry. He thinks that once government is able to finance education reasonably, there would be remarkable improvement in the Secondary School system.
It is on this basis that this research work is conducted to find out the problems militating against teaching and learning of Computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools. A case study of some selected schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna state.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the problems militating against teaching and learning of Computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools. A case study of some selected schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna state. Specifically, it seeks to:
1. Find out the extent to which inadequate facilities impede the acquisition of
Computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools.
2. Find out the extent to which lack of trained personnel and financial constraints
affect the acquisition of computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools.
3. Determine the strategies that could be adopted to curb the problems militating
against the teaching and learning of Computer Studies in Junior Secondary
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is very essential to the extent that it will be beneficial to the following: Students, the teachers and the government.
The study will enable the students to understand that computer studies, get adequate knowledge and social improvements in their academic struggles.
It helps the government in devising policies that will increase the rate of teaching and learning of Computer science in Junior Secondary Schools..
The study will disclose the impediments in the acquisition of computer education in Junior Secondary Schools which now make the government to provide solutions to such problems and improve the acquisition of computer education in Junior Secondary Schools.
1.6 Research Questions
1. To what extent does an inadequate facility impede the acquisition of
Computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools?
2. To what extent does lack of trained personnel and financial constraints
affect the acquisition of computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools?
3. What strategies can be adopted to curb the problems militating against the
teaching and learning of Computer Studies in Junior Secondary Schools?
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the problems militating against teaching and learning of Computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools, in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna state. It is also delimited to the Junior Secondary School students within the study area.
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