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1.1 Background of the study
Secretaries are not born but made, although there are people with the potential of becoming good, effective trained and efficient secretaries. Before anybody can be called a secretary, he or she must have undergone certain trainings but the period of training varies from time to time and depends on the level of operation. In the words the degree of training will determine where the secretary will work. Generally, it is however required, that a person must undergo series of trainings before he/she can be called a qualified secretary. During the period of training, no matter how short or long it takes, it is expected that all the skills and knowledge required of a secretary to be able to discharge her duties effectively must have been acquired. Having acquired these, the end result is to be able to impact these skills and knowledge into others or make the best use of them in various places where such are needed
Achievement of objectives and good returns on investment could only be attained if human resources aspects of the human enterprise are properly developed through training and manpower development. Atiomo, reiterated that an organization’s future prosperity depends not only upon providing a product which is competitive neither in price, quality and quantity nor of simply increasing the range of products produced. If the organization has people of vision, energy and experience to direct the force and facilities, then the other requirement for success should follow. An organization may have employees of ability and determination with appropriate equipment and managerial support yet productivity fails below expected standard. By and large, the missing factors in many cases are lack of adequate skills and knowledge which are acquired through manpower training and development. Ojo as cited in Ngu argues that despite the positive measure by Nigerian Government to encourage national indigenous manpower development is still not encouraging. In a similar line of reasoning studies by Yusuf, Jose and Ngu also corroborated that most employing institutions in Nigeria tend to feel less concerned in training and development of its employees. Ojo attributed this to financial inabilities and more generally lack of awareness of the importance of staff training and development programmes as they affect employees performance in their respective organizations. In the light of the foregoing, any organization, no matter how advanced in science and technology cannot be represented by its building, plants and equipment; rather it is the achievement and development of human resource capital that is responsible for its increase in productivity. It is against this backdrop, this study tends to look into the impact of training and development on workers’ productivity through the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund) Academic Staff Training and Development of some selected universities in Nigeria. Ngu sees training and development to be the process of behavioural modification or moulding of workers to integrate organizational needs with their characteristics. Oribabor as cited in Kulkarni added that training and development aims at developing competencies such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. In interpreting the above postulation Onah maintains that at the time of technological change and innovation both new and old employees need to be trained to update their knowledge and skills and keep them abreast of the new development in the techniques and methods of doing their jobs in order to achieve individual and organizational objectives.
Halsay contents that training is the process of aiding employees in their present or future worth through the development of appropriate habit of thought and action, skills, knowledge and attitudes. Atiomo, in supporting the foregoing, opines that training is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude for the sole purpose of executing a specific or present job more effectively and efficiently. Isyaku as cited in Kulkarni corroborated that the process of training and development is a continuous one. It is an avenue to acquire more and new knowledge and develop further the skills and techniques to function effectively. In reassessing and reviewing the submissions of Halsay, Cruden and Sherman, Ngu, Atiomo, Isyaku, Oribabor and Onah as postulated above it shows that training is a course of action designed to enable the individual to realise his potential for self-growth and organizational development. Flippo as cited in Ngu conceptualizes training as a calculated efforts aimed at increasing an employee skills for doing a particular job and developing person’s knowledge for vocational purpose. In correlation with the above stipulations the wordings of French can be reiterated, he maintains that training is a process that aims to bring up individuals up to a desire standards for present or potential assignment. In a similar line of reasoning Glueck, sees training as a systematic process of altering the behaviour, knowledge and motivation of employees in a direction to increase organizational achievement. Glueck goes further to assert that training is a premeditated course of action taken in order to bring about changes in employees approach to work. In his own way Stones as cited in Atiomo corroborated that training is any organizational planned efforts to change the behaviour of employees so that they can perform to an acceptable and standard result on the job. In analyzing the concept of training as submitted by Glueck, Stones, Flippo, and French above, it can be seen and understood that they examined training from both conceptual and operational viewpoints. Therefore, training helps employees to improve their work performance in order to ensure the standard and quality of work required by the organization to achieve both organizational and individuals predetermined objectives According to Wognum (2001, 408), training and development needs may occur at three organizational levels namely; (1) strategic level where needs are determined by top management while considering organizations goals, mission, strategy and problems, which need to be resolved or fixed (2) tactical level where needs are determined with middle management while considering developments needs to the coordination and cooperation between organization units and (3) operational level where needs are determined with lower executive management and other employees while considering problems related to operations such as performance problems of individual workers and departments in subject. In order to enable an organization formulate human resource training and development goals that will enable both formal and informal human resource training and development methods and programmes create a workforce that enables effectiveness and competitiveness, it is worth giving consideration to, providing proper coordination as well as proper incorporation of the needs within the three levels The first issue is to identify the needs relevant to the organizations objectives. According to Wognum (2001) and Torrington et al. (2005), there are three 23 categories of identifying training and development needs. These include: resolving problems, this focuses on workers’ performance, improving certain working practices, this focuses on improvement regardless of the performance problems and changing or renewing the organization situation, which may arise because of innovations or changes in strategy
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
For a good number of reasons, secretaries in some of our financial institutions have been finding it very difficult to cope with the performance of their function as it regards to human relations. This has generated a lot of problems for secretaries. Some of the situations are witnessed when an intolerant boss makes a mistake in the course of his duties with the secretary, but fails to admit such mistakes; rather he costs the blames on the secretary. Struggling to meet up with the demands of these disgust executives as well as maintaining a good relationship with each other and at the same time keeping up with the demands of the job is stressful to the secretary. Again lack of fact in performing official duties by the secretary constitute a very big problem, for instance when answering phone calls, secretaries with poor relationship radiate this attitude to phone callers. This equally applied when handling client’s affairs, because some secretaries by their positions in financial institution do not take cognizance of the client due to inefficiency in their job. In that regards Carvel F.J (1972) say “That a problem arises when the boss finds the secretary sexually attractive. This he says creates room for insolent secretary and an awkward office relationship now prevails. In this regard the researcher will try to find the solutions to these problems as it affects the secretary.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
1. To identify the impact of training as they affect secretaries working environment.
2. Investigate the role of human relations as an aid to effective job performance
3. To know whether the working environment under which workers perform their duty is conductive enough for increase productively.
4. To ascertain the relationship between training and job performance of secretaries
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no significant impact of training as on secretaries work effectiveness.
H1: there is a significant impact of training as on secretaries work effectiveness.
H02: there is no relationship between training and job performance of secretaries
H2: there is a relationship between training and job performance of secretaries
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is intended to create awareness on management of organization, regarding the need to provide good and effective performance in their organizations. The study will be of immense benefit to organization individual and students, it will afford business organizations the opportunity of knowing more of some of the employee wants and needs the various components of human relations. They can use and its resultant effect on productivity.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study covers some selected financial organizations in Auchi. In particular, the study is geared towards findings out the possible benefits of training on the effectiveness of secretaries in the banking environment and the result of the study will assist the management of these organizations in appraising its human relations practice with a view of having human relations that is result oriented. This study was carried out in some financial organizations in Auchi and is delimited to Auchi metrophs with the following organization covered. New Nigeria Bank, Auchi and Uchi Community Bank, Auchi in Enugu state. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
HUMAN RELATION: Human relations are the process of training employees, addressing their needs, fostering a workplace culture and resolving conflicts between different employees or between employees and management.
JOB PERFORMANCE: Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studied academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology, also forms a part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success.
SECRETARY: A secretary or personal assistant is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills
FINANCIAL INSTITUTION: Financial institutions are corporations which provide services as intermediaries of financial markets
TRAINING: Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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