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This study assessed the new media content among undergraduate students in kwara state. It is a survey research employing descriptive research design of the survey type, the instrument used to collect data was questionnaire. This study took place across three states in the South West geo-political zone in Nigeria. The study areas were undergraduate students of Kwara state. Using in-depth interview with the students, the study discovered that new media has greater impact on the old media in the academic performance of undergraduate students. The study arrived at the conclusion that “no newly introduced mode of communication or combination of new modes wholly replace or supplant the new ones.
1.1 Background of the study
The world is today celebrating the improvements in communication technology which has broadened the scope of communication through Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Ufuophu and Ayobami (2012:129) observe that the ICTs include internet, satellite, cable data transmission and computer assisted equipment. Social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called “nodes”, which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige (Adeboye, 2012, cited in Asemah and Edegoh,2012). New media or social network can also be referred to as a map of specified ties, such as friendship, between the nodes being studied. The nodes, to which an individual is thus connected, are the social contacts of that individual; the network can also be used to measure social capital – the value that an individual gets from the social network. Social networking sites include: Yahoo Messenger, Face book Messenger, Blackberry Messenger (BBM), Google talk, Google Messenger, iPhone, Androids and so on. These networking sites are used by most people to interact with old and new friends, physical or internet friends (Adeboye, 2012, cited in Asemah and Edegoh, 2012). The expansion in technology has also affected internet software, thus leading to chatting sites known by the name “social media”. With social networking sites, one can send and receive messages almost immediately. However, lack of regulation of the internet has led to its excessive use. McQuail (2008:154) avers that the internet penetrates more homes. It is a common sight to see a youth chatting in sensitive and highly organized places like church, mosque and lecture venues. Some are so carried away that even as they are walking along the high way, they keep chatting. The manufacturing and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the situation, as youths no longer need to visit a cybercafé before they send and receive messages. Attention has been shifted from visible to invisible friends, while important ventures like study and writing are affected in the process. This phenomenon has become a source of worry to many who believe in knowledge and skill acquisition the emergence of social media as a result of advancement in technology and expansion in internet software has raised eye brows among academics on its (social media) impacts on studies. Students at all levels of learning now have divided attention to studies, as a result of available opportunities to be harnessed from social media. Whether these opportunities promote studies is a question that needs to be answered. Thus, the problem this study investigates is the effect of social media networks on the academic performance of the undergraduate students of Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.
Media equation theory, as noted by Griffin (2000), cited in Asemah and Edegoh (2012) was propounded by Byron Reeves and Clifford Nass. The theory proposes that media are equal to real life and that electronic media in particular are being given human attributes. In most cases, people talk to computer as if they were talking to human beings. More so, in most cases, you talk to your television as if you are discussing with human beings, hence you talk to television sets as if you are discussing with people. That is, people have personalized the media of mass communication to the extent that they now see them, just the way they see human beings. Thus, Griffin (2000, p. 273), cited in Asemah and Edegoh (2012) notes that media are equal to real life. He further noted that what Reeves and Nass’s equation suggests is that we respond to communication media as if they were alive. This theory says that people now treat computers, television and the new media like real people and places. Going by the media equation theory, we tend to give human attributes to inanimate objects in our homes. According to Griffin (2000,p. 373).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The advent of ICT and other media content was design to make life and knowledge acquisition easier. However the effect of the new media content on the academic performance of higher institution undergraduate students in Kwara state has been worrisome, because of the retrogressive effect of this media content on the reading habit of this students. This is because instead of this student investing their time in reading and researching the waste their precious time on social media games porn videos and other negativity associated with this inventions which makes it problematic in assessing the full benefit of this media content.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDIES
The main objective of this study is to assess the new media content and development among Nigerian undergraduate students in Kwara state. However, at the completion of the studies, the study seeks to achieve the following objective:
i) Ascertaining the development of the media content
ii) Evaluate the relationship between the media content and academic performance
iii) The role of the media in attaining educational objectives
iv) Evaluation of the effect of social networks on academic performance of university students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
For the successful completion of this study, the following research question was formulated:
i) What is the academic implication in the development of the media content?
ii) What is the relationship between media content and academic performance?
iii) What role does the media plays in ensuring that good academic performance among students in Kwara state?
iv) What is the academic importance of the social media?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the studies, the findings will be of immense benefit to the students of mass communication and other discipline in regulating the amount of time invested in the media doing vain things that is not profitable to the student academic performance, the study will also be of benefit to teachers, guardian, students, academia, researchers and the general public.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDIES
The scope of this study covers the assessment of the new media content and development among Nigerian university undergraduate in Kwara state Nigeria. However, the study has some limitations which are:
AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher have to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Finance: finance is a major constrain to the scope of these research work, this is because the researcher has to combine academic work and the research work which limit the amount of fund allocated to the studies
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
New media most commonly refers to content available on-demand through the Internet, accessible on any digital device, usually containing interactive user feedback and creative participation. Common examples of new media include websites such as online newspapers, blogs, wikis, video games and social media. A defining characteristic of new media is dialogue. New Media transmit content through connection and conversation. It enables people around the world to share, comment on, and discuss a wide variety of topics. Unlike any of past technologies, New Media is grounded on an interactive community.
Most technologies described as "new media" are digital, often having characteristics of being manipulated, networkable, dense, compressible, and interactive. Some examples may be the Internet, websites, computer multimedia, video games, virtual reality, augmented reality, CD-ROMS, and DVDs. New media are often contrasted to "old media", such as television, radio, and print media, although scholars in communication and media studies have criticized rigid distinctions based on oldness and novelty. New media does not include television programs (only analog broadcast), feature films, magazines, books, – unless they contain technologies that enable digital generative or interactive processes. Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, is an example, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for the benefit of non-community readers. Facebook is an example of the social media model, in which most users are also participants. Wikitude is an example for augmented reality. It displays information about the users' surroundings in a mobile camera view, including image recognition, 3D modeling and location-based approach to augmented reality. The newness of "New" Media being constantly challenged, and the frequent injunction of a "pure" use of the media, lead to the concept of "Open Media" to be taken as an hybridation of media taking advantage of the potential and outcomes of New media mutations but open to old media Maurice Benayoun (2001, 2011).
Media (the singular form of which is medium) is the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data. It is either associated with communication media, or the specialized mass media communication businesses such as: print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television) and publishing.
In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has greatly altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication. The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analogue and digital media.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDIES
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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