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The main focus of this study is the “economic analysis of Quail production among small holder farmers in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.Two sampling techniques were used in selecting 122 farmersfor this study. Descriptive statistics, net farm income and stochastic frontier production function were used in analyzing the data. The result of the analysis shows that 34% of the farmers fell within the age range of 30 and 39years.Majority of the farmers (59%) did not have a formal education. The farmers with household size ranged from 1-10 persons having the highest frequency at 53% while 72%of the farmers were not members of anyCooperative Society. About 84% did not have access to extension services, 94% of the farmers did not have access to credit. The total revenue earned from Quail production was ₦41,400 and ₦44,750 for meat and egg respectively. The total cost of Quail production was ₦21,049 and ₦32,596 for meat and egg respectively. The net farm income was therefore ₦20,351 and ₦12,154 for meat and egg respectively. The estimated mean technical efficiency for Quail meat producers is 0.73 and that of Quail egg producers is 0.85. The mean allocative efficiency of Quail producers is 0.61while the mean allocative efficiency for egg producers is 0.64.The study shows that the mean economic efficiency for Quail meat farmers is 0.45, while the mean economic efficiency of the egg farmers is 0.55. The major constraints identified in Quail production in the study area were high cost of feeds (68%), inadequate extension services (58%), inadequate capital (44%), pest and diseases (31%) and poor pricing (29%). It is concluded that Quail production is profitable in the study area but the farmers are not economically efficient.



1.1       Background to the Study

Agriculture still offers the leading source of livelihood, and contributes a great %age of

national income for most developing countries around the world (Dugjeet al., 2009).

ILO (2007) suggest that about 60% of African labor force still derive their livelihood

from agriculture, making it the largest employer of labor in most developing countries.

Nigeria is among the least consumer of animal protein in the world (Ikheolaand Inedia

2005). The problem of malnutrition in Nigeria is attributable to low consumption of

meat (Food and Agriculture Organization , 2011). Japanese quails are hardy birds that

thrive in concrete and small cages and are inexpensive to keep; they are affected by

common poultry diseases, but fairly resistant. Japanese quail birds mature in about six

weeks and are usually in full eggs production at 50 days of age. Quails with proper care

can lay 200 eggs in the first year of lay, life expectancy is 2-2.5 years (Food and

Agriculture Organisation, 2011).

Quail eggs are also known to stimulate growth, increase sexual appetite, stimulate

brain functions which improves intelligence quotient and generally rejuvenates the

body. It is recommended for children whether cooked or raw (Bakojiet al., 2013). The

consumption of quail eggs fortifies the woman‟s body during pre and post-natal periods

as well as after surgery and radiotherapy. It also has beneficial effects on the foetus

(physical and mental balance) and for the mother after delivery (physical rehabilitation

and rejuvenation of cells) (Bakojiet al., 2013). Quail eggs also improve the quality of

breast milk. Quail meat has a better taste than chicken and has less fat content. It

promotes body and brain development in children (Onyewuchiet al., 2013).


Poultry meat and eggs though the major source of animal protein is still unable to meet

up the protein deficiency of the world (Igado and Aina, 2010). Commercialization of

quail bird production is a recent development in Nigeria (Akpan and Nsa, 2009)

while quail farming is an uncommon farming business in Kaduna State but with lots of

potentials. For the few people that have embraced it, they are not only smiling to banks,

they are also enjoying both the nutritional and health benefits derived from consuming


Quail birds have the capacity to lay 24 eggs in one month and 288 eggs in a year, it

reaches maturity at 8 weeks.Quail birds are small body birds which require little space,

it can start laying eg

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