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1.1 Background of the Study
By taking a cursory look at the economic history both developed and the developing countries, we can easily say that taxation is an important weapon in the hand of government. It is true in the sense that the process of taxation does not only generate revenue, but also achieves fiscal goals such as influencing investments and timing the consumption of certain goods and services.
Nigeria as a developing nation is striving very hard to achieve industrialization, full employment and other macro-economic policies but also political power. But such objective cannot be achieved without any reaction on the high rate of tax evasion; taxation from the view of many people is a major source of government revenue apart from its role as an instrument for fiscal policy in Nigeria.
Tax evasion and illegal and a deliberate act of the payer that involves him paying less than he ought to pay, as a result of deliberate omission or misstatement of item that come from returns claiming relief in respect of wife and children which does not exit. Many able bodied person evade tax and this negative in the development of Nigeria economy.
In Nigeria where tax is a major source of generating revenue by government, still, most people invade tax which is an illegal act or practice. Those who followed the rules that govern taxation pay the right tax.Millioniars who do not pay and some members of law income group who know the right thing to do but deliberately left the camp of being honest and join that of perjury and fraud in spite of the fact that tax law that are made can make individuals, partnership and unlimited liability companies engage in tax evasion.
The delta state board of internal revenue is a body entrusted and administering the different taxes/tariffs set out in their schedule. In the delta state internal revenue consolidation law 2009, they shall consist of:
An executive chairman, three members qualified and appointed by the governor of the state. Two directors of the revenue services, a representative of the ministry of economic, a representative of the ministry of finance, a representative of office of accountant general, a legal adviser of the state ministry of justice and a secretary.
They all help to assist the Delta State government with required fund needed for the state development and also use reasonable legal and conventional means to bring eligible tax payer into the net to meet their vision.
1.2. Statement of the problem
When a research is carried out, it focuses on solving a particular problem concerning that particular matter for which the researcher want to find solution. Taxation and it operation have several question that boarder on the following:
1. The problem of improper accounting records or financial statement by taxable organization resulting in confusion that can cause malpractice in respect of tax payment.
2. The problem of fictitious or mis-claiming of allowance in income such as non-existing property, so as to have a generous capital allowance.
3. The general Luke-warm attitude of government towards the task of revenue generation through taxation policy.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objective of study is to examine the effect of tax evasion especially how to effects the economy situation of the country. This work seeks to achieve the following objectives:
1. To identify some factors which are responsible for tax evasion in our society?
2. To investigate reasons why citizens perpetually lend themselves towards the monster call evasion.
3. To understand various means by which persons evade tax and how to reduce or totally eliminate tax evasion.
4. To study the effect of tax evasion on the national economy, especially as it affect Delta State.
5. To understand various policy and guild lines set out on taxation and the possibility of using such information to curb the menace of tax evasion.
6. To make necessary recommendation to government and the society in general of issues of taxation.
1.4 Research Questions
Research questions are assumption in research. They are informed assumption; they are derived from the problem of the study.
A research assumption is the basis for which a hypothesis may be stated for a research work. On the other hand, hypothesis is a tentative finding accepted for further investigation. It is an aid to solve research problems. In this study the following assumption or research question were made:
1. That’s the lack of efficient means of collecting records does not bring about tax evasion?
2. That the problem of improper accounting records does not bring about tax evasion?
3. To what extent does tax evasion affect the development of the national economy?
4. What are the taxation problems that can create any effect of evasion of tax in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the study
The significance of this study is to view the effect of tax evasion in Nigeria economy. Tax evasion does not contribute to the economic developing of Nigeria economy. The improvement of industrialization in an economy depends purely on the total revenue generated by government. Tax evasion seems to serve as a parasite eating up the level of industrialization in any country.
Another major significance of this research work is that since government use taxation as an instrument of fiscal policy to achieve certain objectives like stable exchange rate, balance of payment, price stability, reduction in income gap, employment opportunity e.t.c. It is therefore be of great important of this study to enable individual know the effect of tax evasion in the economy.
1.6 Scope and delimitation of the study
How much a researcher want to cover (constitute scope) and those factors that stand on his way to fulfill his aspiration (constitute the limitation), these are usually presented to readers so as to have a guild towards the extent to which they may expert to discover from the research.
This research work looks at the effect of tax evasion, and effect it has overall revenue effort by government in Nigeria. To this end, various aspects are investigated. Some of which have already been listed in the statement of the problem.
1.7 Limitation of the study
The purpose of this study includes understanding the concept of tax evasion and how it affects the economy of Nigeria.However,it is not possible to undertake a vast study that will cover the whole country. To end this, the researcher has deemed it suitable to focus only on delta state. However, this is not feasible due to time and financial constraints. In particular the delta state internal revenue has been chosen from the result of the conduct of the research in this sample stated; we will be able to make generalization to cover the whole country.
1.8 Definition of terms
Tax:- Tax is a compulsory levy imposed by the government against the income, profit or wealth of individuals, partnership, corporate organization (oxford English dictionary 5th edition).
Taxation: - Taxation can be defined as the process or system of arising income through the levy of various types of taxes.
Evasion:- This is the act of evading or escaping by artifice or contrivance escape dodging or preventing or giving excuse e.t.c furthermore, evasion may occur due to pride or abstinence e.g the telling of half truth to mis-lead another where he accept your contention.
Omission: - Omitting or leaving out not doing things that should be done.
Fraud:- Is defined as irregularities involving the use of criminal deception to obtain an unjust or illegal advantages(mill champ 1986:166).
Understanding: - An action or practice of understanding statement that express an idea.
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