PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON USING MORINGA OLIEFERA POD FOR WATER TREATMENT

PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON USING MORINGA OLIEFERA POD FOR WATER TREATMENT

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

Moringa, native to part of Africa and Asia in the sole genus in the flowering plant family moringa cease. The name in derived from muringal/murakkalmurina, it in the most spread species of the plant family moringa ceae. It in a rapidly growing tree native to the Himalayan regions of the North west India and indigenous to many parts of Africa, South America and Asia typically reaching a height of 3-4 meters seeding even in poor quality soil (Sutherand, et al 1994)

Portable drinking water is the most precious of all natural resources. Portable water as defined in advanced learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition is, water that is safe for drinking. Water is next to air in the most need for man. However, inspite of the considerable investment of government in Nigeria over the years in this essential human requirement a large population still dues not have access to water in adequate quality and quantity water borne diseases are one of the main problems in developing count ones about 1.6million people are compelled to use contaminated water (Dishma, June 2000). This is due to the level of pollutant in surface and ground water, since a large proportion of rural and urban dwellers in Nigeria obtain domestic water and sometimes drinking water from ponds, stream and shallow wells (Sangodogos, 1990). The discharge of waste into waters and the resultant delirious changes in water ecology have been reported by several researchers (Law, 1980). Who also expressed concern over human health and possible accumulation of human enteric pathogenic micro-organisms by aquatic organization some of these death have been traced to the use of water grossly polluted untreated waste. (De Silveetal, 1988 and UNED, 1991).

Activated carbon (Ac) popularly known as activated charcoal or activated coal, and is a common term for carbon materials, which comprises charcoal. The fire structure possed by activated carbonincreased the surface area (> 1000 m2/g) of pores that result in the possession of powerful adsorptive properties carbon in available in three forms these are powder, granular and pellet. Nonetheless, the most frequently used are granular and powdered (M.A. Tadda 2016), It is valuable for variety of applications examples include gas purification, metal extraction, gold recovery, medicine and sewage treatment are filter in gas masks and filter masks and filters in compressed are in addition, activated carbon is useful  for the deodorization of dosed space such as refrigerators and ware houses, adsorption of ethylene to prevent premature opening of fruits and vegetable and discoloration of sugar, honey, juice and liqoor. Sufficient activation for useful application may come solely from the high surface area, through further chemical treatments of ten enhances the adsorption ability of the material (Dabrowsks, et al 2005).

Moringa tree produces large seed pods which can either be harvested when green for food or left to dry. The dried seed or pod can be crushed to produce a high quality vegetable oil and the resulting press cake mixed with water and strained to form a coagulant for water treatment (Mcconnachie, Matawali et al).

1.1     Aim

The aim of this research project was to produced activated carbon using moringa oliefera pod for water treatment

1.2     Objectives

The aim of this research project can be achieved through the following objectives

i.        Chemical activation using KOH and HCL

ii.       Treatment of water from river Kaduna using activated carbon produced

iii.      Carbonization of moringa oliefera pod using furnace.

iv.      Analysis of water sample before and after treatment using standard value.

v.       Comparing of result obtained before and after treatment of water  

1.3     Scope

The scope of this research project include the following.

i.        Collection of raw material (Moringa Oliefera pod)

ii.       Pretreatment of raw material

iii.      Carbonization

iv.      Activation of carbon

v.       Collection of water sample

vi.      Characterization of activated carbon

vii.     Water treatment

viii.    Analysis of water sample before and after treatment

ix.      Comparing of result with standard

1.4     Justification

Since absorbent are expensive and there is need for people to get access to clean water, so production of absorbent in a local way will ensure that the masses get access to clean water and will also minimize or reduce the cost of the imported absorbent.


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