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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Many family lost their children to any one of these childhood killer diseases in the past, this dashing the hope of parent on such children. The effect of such loses often involve economics, political and social implication on the home. To prevent cost of children and its consequences many parent consult the herbalist and their oracle, make of their children scarification on the bodies of their children and administer concoction and perform a number of rituals to appease gods, demo and devil believe to be the cause of the unfortunate occurrence (Oyeride 1995).
To prevent the loses of children form these killer diseases, the world health organization in 1977 launch a health scheme tagged to expanded progrmame on immunization. E.P.I is all UNICE/WHO scheme designed to expand the accessibility of immunization service to increase number of children within the age range of 0-2 years.
The aim of this programme is to combating six common diseases of childhood namely, measles, tetatnus, tuberculosis, polio mylitis, Diphiheria and whooping cough (WHO 1981) It also aim at educating individual and mobilizing government to adopt health policy matter what protect children and mother through E.P.I children are immunized against the six childhood vaccinated against tetanus on an effort to attest ameliorate if not eradicate infant mortality resulting from the childhood diseases (Oyerind 1995).
Immunization remains one of the most important public health intervention and the cost effective strategy to reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with infections disease. Over two million death are delayed through immunization each year worldwide (WHO 2006).
Despite the vaccine preventable diseases mortality with an estimated three million death each years. Uptake of vaccination services is dependent not on provision of these services but also on the other factor include knowledge and attitude of their mother density of health worker accessibility of vaccination clinic and availability of safe needles and syringe (Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention 2006).
In recognition of the importance of this programme, Nigeria launch her own chapter of the programme known as expanded programme or immunization 1979 now known as National programme on Immunization the programme has continued in its efforts to implement sustainable strategies and intervention in collaboration with vision of making immunization a community owned community derive and community operate services federal government of Nigeria 2006).
In order to enable patronage the government among other evolves services of health educating and enlightened programme or radio and television. The programme was further reinforce through issuance of immunization for children by Ministry of Health (995).
In lie with it enabling act 12 of 1979, the availability of present vaccine to state and local government area with corresponding qualities of needles and syringes. NPI has also supported the state and local government with cold chair and logistic equipment, human technical and financial support required for the implementation (Immunization watch 2004).
Immunization services delivery against six killer diseases firstly focus on routine immunization aimed at getting children aged 0-2 years immunized at various primary health care centre across the national (Federal Republic of Nigeria 2001).
In 1981 Federal government declared some days a national immunization day (NID) and on such days thousand at vaccine centre were opened in school, market, place, church, mosque, motors park and other public places to bring it closer to the masses, particularly the nursing mother through this activities NPI became more popular as one of the health centre delivery programme in the country. (Oyerinde 1995).
While the impact of immunization on the reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria has been remarkable is yet to research if fully potential (WHO 2006). Said immunization coverage in Nigeria had dropped drastically and vaccine were not regularly available.
Taking into consideration the observation phenomenon revealing the concern of all reduce intact. Mobidity and mortality rate (Gibon 1981) Hoping that if it becomes most relevant to ascertain the level of knowledge of mother about childhood killer diseases and their level of participation in the National Programme on Immunization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In a developing countries babies born will on the average live two years less than those born on the industrial world (Gibson 1981), about a half of the difference may be attributed to what happen in the first years of life on the average even if a child survive to reach age of five. Henceforth, life expecting is still eight to nine years less than children born in the developing countries. In addition, children born in a developing countries are more linked to suffer from vaccine preventable diseases (World bank report 1982).
The very essential of children developing countries after love and care normal physical growth is to immunize against diseases.
This study is to examine the effect of communication on the attitude of the mother towards childhood killer diseases and National Immunization using the PHC Karu Nasarawa state as a case study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this research work:
1. To review the importance, misperceptions of routine immunization and childhood killer diseases
2. To examine the relationship between communication on the attitudes of mothers towards children killer diseases.
3. To examine relationship between occupational status of the mothers and their attitudes towards immunization of their babies.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Mothers don’t have access to national programme on immunization activities within their vicinity.
Hi: Mothers don’t have access to national programme on immunization activities within their vicinity
Ho: There is no significant relationship between occupational status of the mothers and their attitudes towards immunization of their babies.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between occupational status of the mothers and their attitudes towards immunization of their babies.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study aimed at investigating the effect of communication on the attitude of mothers towards childhood killer diseases and national programme on immunization, therefore it is hoped that resort of the study will assist the NPI manager, administrative and programme planner in handling an insight into the ideas of mother or childhood killer diseases and national programme on immunization. The result would also go along way to serve as a resources material for both serving and the training health related personnel that have to do with studying planning organizing and implementing different aspect of National Programme on Immunization in our society.
The result also assist future researcher to gain some knowledge on the effect of communication on the attitude of mother towards childhood killer diseases and national programme on immunization.
1.6 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Limitations/constraints are inevitable in carrying out a research work of this nature. However, in the course of this research, the following constraints were encountered thus:
1. Non-availability of enough resources (finance): A work of this nature is very tasking financially, money had to be spent at various stages of the research such resources which may aid proper carrying out of the study were not adequately available.
2. Secret attitude of respondents: Since this research topic dwell on the effect of communication on the attitudes of mothers towards childhood killer diseases and national programme on immunization, some of the respondents find it difficult to offer useful information since the research is all about diseases, some mothers do not want to say anything as regards their children’s health status.
3. Time factor: The time used in carrying out the research work is relatively not enough to bring the best information out of it. However, I hope that the little that is contained in this study will go a long way in solving many greater problems.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Immunization: Is a process by which an individual immune system becomes fortified against an agent.
Vaccine: These are artificial antigen which when introduced to the body protect against invasion of diseases.
NPI: National Programme on Immunization
Diseases: Unhealthy condition of the mind
Childhood Diseases: These are diseases that affect children under the age of Attitude: The way human behave or thinks
WHO: Is an abbreviation that connotes World Health Organization.
TB: An abbreviation for Tuberculosis
OPV: An abbreviation for Polio Vaccine
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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