COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN PLANT DISEASE CONTROL

COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN PLANT DISEASE CONTROL

  • The Complete Research Material is averagely 61 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters.
  • Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
  • Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
  • Full Access Fee: ₦4,000

Get the complete project » Instant Download Active

ABSTRACT:

The aim of this research is to comparatively study the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Citrus aurantifolia leaf extracts and their synergy. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Penicillium notatum and Candida albicans, were used as test organisms and the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was determined by the agar-well diffusion method. Synergistic antibacterial activity ranged from 0.0 ± 0.0 to 2.4 ± 0.6, 11.3 ± 0.9 to 23.5 ± 1.1, 16.7 ± 0.3 to 27.3 ± 0.6 and 8.7 ± 0.9 to 22.7 ± 0.9, for aqueous, ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts respectively. Extracts of C. aurantifolia were more effective against the test organisms than B. pinnatum extracts, except the aqueous extract. Synergistic antifungal activity of the aqueous extract was 0.0 ±

0.0 mm for all the test fungi, the synergistic antifungal activity ranged from 8.7 ± 0.6 mm to 14.0 ± 0.9 mm, 10.0 ± 0.9 mm to 21.7 ± 0.6 mm and 0.0 ± 0.0 mm to 20.0 ± 0.6 mm for the ethanol, methanol and acetone extract respectively. Larger zones of inhibition were observed in the methanol extract of the synergy than the other extracting solvents. The synergy gave higher zones of inhibition neither B. pinnatum extract nor C. aurantifolia extract could give. It was also observed that the extracts compared well with the standard antimicrobial agents used as positive control. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents which conferred antimicrobial property

on the plants. From the foregoing, the methanol extract of the synergy is considered the most effective in the treatment of infections caused by the test organisms.

CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION

1.0      BACKGROUND  OF THE STUDY   

  A large number of chemicals have been developed for the control of plant diseases, but due to the growing awareness of the hazardous side effects of these chemicals, more emphasis is given to the use of bio control agents. One of the major challenges in the field of Plant Pathology is the need for some ecofriendly and safe alternative control strategies for agriculture, which has led researchers to turn their attention to plant extracts as sources of bio-control agents. Therefore, growing of most plants and tress now goes beyond afforestation purposes to making them available and accessible for exploitation for their natural chemical composition vis-à-vis their usefulness in the management and cure of both plant and animal diseases. These chemical compounds, known also as phytochemicals, provide defenses for the plants against diseases and other environmental factors. It is now evident that most of these plant chemicals could also be helpful in the treatment of both animal and human diseases.

1.1        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

 A significant number  of chemicals developed for the control of plant diseases, have  hazardous side effects .A greater need is been placed on the use of plant extract Therefore, growing of most plants and tress now goes beyond afforestation purposes to making them available and accessible for exploitation for their natural chemical composition vis-à-vis their usefulness in the management and cure of both plant and animal diseases. These chemical compounds, known also as phytochemicals, provide defenses for the plants against diseases and other environmental factors. Hence the problem confronting the study is to conduct a comparative phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control

1.2      OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is conduct a comparative phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control

1.3      RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is the nature of phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control

1.4      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study provides an understanding of the fact that growing of most plants and tress now goes beyond afforestation purposes to making them available and accessible for exploitation for their natural chemical composition vis-à-vis their usefulness in the management and cure of both plant and animal diseases. These chemical compounds, known also as phytochemicals, provide defenses for the plants against diseases and other environmental factors. It is now evident that most of these plant chemicals could also be helpful in the treatment of both animal and human diseases.

      1.5   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study focuses on the comparative phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control

1.6        LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study was confronted by logistics and geographical constraint

1.7       DEFINITION OF TERMS

MEDICINAL PLANT DEFINED

A medicinal plant is a plant that is used to attempt to maintain health, to be administered for a specific condition, or both, whether in modern medicine or in traditional medicine.

ANTIOXIDANT DEFINED

Antioxidant can be broadly defined as any substance that delays or inhibits oxidative damage to a target molecule[5]. The characteristic feature of an antioxidant is ability to scavenge the free radicals due to their redox hydrogen donators and singlet oxygen quencher

FREE RADICAL DEFINED

A free radical is defined as any atom or molecule possessing unpaired electrons. The reactive oxygen species are oxygen derived free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2), hydroxyl (OH•), hydroperoxyl (OOH•), peroxyl (ROO•) and alkoxyl (RO•) radicals and non-free radicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochorous acid (HOCl), ozone (O3) and singlet oxygen (O2). It can be formed in living organisms by both 





Share a Comment


You can find more project topics easily, just search

Quick Project Topic Search