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Urine Sample from pregnant women were analysed for bacteriuria. The result of irinalysis reveals the appearance –yellow and Cloudy, pH 6.0, protein-ve, Glucose-ve,Blood-ve, Urobilinogen. Normal, Ketone-ve, Nitrate tve, Bilirubin-ve, Ascobic acid –ve in some of the samples. The result of urine microscopy reveal pus cells. 4-6/HPF, Epithelial cell +++, red cells nil, yeast cells nil, crystal nil. Bacterial isolated from the culture include. Staphylococcus aureus, Escheriachia Coli, Klebsiella Spp. The sensitivity test conducted gave the following results. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to streptomycin(++), Ciprofloxacin (+++), Amoclox(+) and resistant to cefuroxine. Klebsiella Spp was sensitive to Ciprofloxine (+++) Ofloxacin (++) and resistant to streptomycin, Ampicillin, Ceporex and Nalidixic acid. Eschriachia Coli was sensitive to gentamycin (++), Ofloxacin (+++), Streptomycin (+++) and resistant to Amoxlox and Ampicillin.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Objective Of Study
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Definition UTI
2.3 Asymptomatic Bacteria
2.4 Acute Systitis
2.5 Signs And Symptoms Include
2.6 Accute Pyleonlenephritis
2.7 Vaginal Infections
2.8 Morbidity And Mortality Concern
2.10 Causes Of Infection
2.12 International Statistics
2.13 Race, age, and UTI and pregnancy
2.13 Clinical Presentation
2.14 Physical Examination
2.16 Etiology Of Uti Pregnancy
A limited spectrum of organisms cause UTI and these include Escherichia Coli, which accounts for the majority of uncomplicated urinary tract infection Isolates. (crupta, et al, 2001). Others are Staphylococcus Saprophyticus, Klebsiella Spp, Proteus Spp, Enterococcus Spp and Enterobacter Spp (Massinde, , et al 2009).
Data on the current distribution and antimicrobial Isolates from pregnant women in Tanania is limited .
Urinary tract infections refer to the presence of microbial pathogen within the urinary tract and it is usually classified by the infection site, bladder (Cystitis), kidney (Pyelonephritis or urine (Bacteria) and also can be a Asymptomatic or symptomatic (UTI) that occur in a normal genitourinary tract with no prior instrumentation are considered as “Uncomplication” whereas “Complicated” Infections are diagnosed in genitourinary tracts that have structural or functional abnormalities Urethral catheters, and are frequently asymptomatic (3,4) (kriptke, 2005).
It has been estimated that globally symptomatic (UTIS) result in as many as 7 millions visits to out patient clinic, 1 million visits to emergency departments, and 100,000 hospitalization annually (5) (chin et al 2011).
Many different microorganisms can cause urinary tract infection (UTIS), though the most common pathogens causing the simple ones in the community are Esherichia Coli and other Enterobacteriacae, which accounts approximately 75% of the isolates (Kebira et al, 2009).
In complicated Urinary tract infections and hospitalized patients, organisms such as Enterococcuss Faecalis and Highly resistant, gram-ve rods including Pseudomoinas Spp. are comparatively more common. The relative frequency of the pathogens varies depending upon age, sex, catheterization and hospitalization.
Urinary tract infection cases is often started empirically an therapy is based on information determined from the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the urinary pathogen. However, a large proportion of uncontrolled antibiotic usage has contributed to the emergency of resistant bacterial Infections (7-10). As a result, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among urinary track has been increasing world wide. (Biadglegene. et al, 2009).
Associated resistance i.e, the fact that a bacterium resistant to one antibiotics is often much more likely to be resistant to other antibiotics, drastically decreases the chances of getting a second empirical attempt right. Resistance rates to the most common prescribe drugs used in the treatment of (UTI) vary considerably in different areas, world-wide. The estimation of local etiology and susceptibility profile could support the most effective empirical treatment. Therefore, investigating epidemiology of (UTIS), the prevalence risk factors, are bacterial isolates and antibiotics sensitivity is fundamental for care givers and health planner to guide the expected intervention.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
Ø The aim of this study was to determine bacterial etiology agent and evaluate their invitro susceptibility pattern to commonly used antimicrobial agents.
Ø To identify the bacteria Isolates.
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