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1.1 Background of the study
Billboards have been used as an advertising medium for more than a century and are still used today, even since Jared Bell presented large cirus posters to the public in the public in the mid- 1800s, billboard advertising remains as a top medium for brand outreach. Billboard are the largest and among the most impactful standard size out of home advertising media format. Looking at how advertising has progressed, roadside advertising has remained relevant since land transportations existence. Companies like pepsi cola and Palmolive started using roadside publicity nations widely recognized. Over the course of time, billboards remain as a top medium in the advertising world because of their power-compared to other popular marketing practices, their complex strategies considered prior or creation, and their successful design, and execution elements unlike television and radio advertisements, billboard cannot be turned off or skipped. Iveson (2011) pointed out how “It has become the only mass medium capable of reaching consumers as they go about their everyday lives” consumers spend a great amount of time each week in the car, and billboards are the free way or alongside the main road. Williams (2009) noted in his study how billboards are ultimately the last method of communication consumer’s fathom before taking action. It is likely for consumers to see the same billboard more than once a day in various locations. Brands with national campaigns often have multiple billboards in the same city because it is within their target market. In comparison with other print advertising like newspaper and magazines, billboard can be geographically targeted to a precise location. For example, of cola company is advertising a refreshing brand. The billboard may display the pictured of the chilled product on the highway and hawkers/retailers can easily sell these products on the highway for drivers and passengers. To have the ultimate turn- over rate, it is best to couple billboard advertising with other form(s). Using out of home billboards in combination with other media improves the decay rate, or time it takes for a person to forget a campaign’s advertising message, (Iveson, 2011). Imagine a consumer watched TV while eating breakfast the other morning and a coca-cola commercial came on featuring their new five Alive orange. When they drove to work that day a billboard for the same five Alive Orange displayed along the freeway. This method allowed the consumer to remember the last time they saw the advertisement, and associate it with the most recent time. If the five Alive Orange is associated well with the consumer, they were more likely to go to a store in the near future because they saw the advertisement has focused on the influence of billboards in marketing products. The proposed study is motivated by the need to fill this gap in knowledge.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Billboard advertising is costly! Often its effects are uncertain, and sometimes it takes a while before it makes any impact on consumer’s choice. It is for these reasons that many companies think it appropriate, occasionally to reduce expenditures on billboard advertising or to entirely eliminate it. On the other hand, some companies sometimes consider it unnecessary to use billboard advertising when their brands are already enjoying great success without advertisement such behavior implicitly fails to consider the fact that advertising is not just a current expense or mere exercise but an investment. This study therefore attempts to ascertain whether the use of billboard in advertising pepsi cola in Abak L.G.A is a strength or weakness.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To find out whether the people of Abak Local Government Area are exposed to billboard advertising of Pepsi Cola.
2. To examine the influence of billboard advertising on patronage of Pepsi Cola in Abak Local Government Area.
3. To examine what motivate the interest of Abak people to patronize in Pepsi Cola.
4. To ascertain the extent billboard advertising contributes to the patronage of Pepsi Cola in Abak Local Government Area.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no influence of billboard advertising on patronage of Pepsi Cola in Abak Local Government Area
H1: there is influence of billboard advertising on patronage of Pepsi Cola in Abak Local Government Area
H02: there is no extent billboard advertising contributes to the patronage of Pepsi Cola in Abak Local Government Area
H2: there is extent billboard advertising contributes to the patronage of Pepsi Cola in Abak Local Government Area
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study.
This work will provide a basis for further research work to scholars. To further achieve this, relevant and authentic references have been cited.
This work will increase the knowledge of media planners in advertising the results from this study will educate business managers on the effect of billboard advertising on the patronage. It will also educate on the features of billboard that will enhance consumer patronage. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the assessment of billboard advertising on the patronage of pepsi cola thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was carried out in Abak Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. The study is limited to the consumers of Pepsi Cola in Abak, and at the end conclusive reports were drawn for the success of the work. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
INFLUENCE: The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.
BILLBOARD ADVERTISING: A billboard is a large outdoor advertising structure, typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers
PATRONAGE: Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another
PEPSI COLA: Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. Originally created and developed in 1893 by Caleb Bradham and introduced as Brad's Drink, it was renamed as Pepsi-Cola on August 28, 1898, and then as Pepsi in 1961.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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