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This project examines the use of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in mapping land use land cover changes in Gidan Waya between 1986 and 2016. In order to achieve this, the Satellite imageries of land sat TM for 1986, 1996, and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) for 2006 and 2016 were obtained and preprocessed, using ERDAS IMAGINE and ArcGIS. The maximum likelihood algorism of supervised Image classifications was used to generate land use land cover maps of the area. Land use land cover classification, change detection, mapping and editing were done by using ArcGIS. The Aggregate rate of changes of Land use and land cover of Gidan Waya indicated that considerable changes have occurred within twenty (20) years from 1986 to 2016. Throughout the period (1986 to 2016), there were significant changes in several Land Use Land Cover categories including vegetation (-234.0%), while the rest of the classes namely Built-up areas in +72.7%, Farmland land 47.3%, bare land coverage also increased by 61.4%, rock outcrop changed slightly by 0.1% and water body decreased by -0.3%. The project output implied that increase in settlement and agricultural coverage of the area resulted from population pressure on land. Hence, the need to increase agricultural outputs to support the population has arisen, while at the same time, awareness on the part of the society need to be created on the effects of indiscriminate encroachment on the vegetation cover.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Land is a complex and dynamic factor which consists of geology, topography, hydrology, soil and microclimate and community of plants and animals that are continually interacting under the influence of climate and people activities (Hudson 1995). The variation in land must be identified, characterized and the information communicated via the most inclusive and cost-effective means if people are to understand different forms of land use. Land is the fundamental basis of all human activities; from it we obtain our food, shelter, water, working space, among others (Nafi’u et al 2017). In Nigeria, farmers mainly use this basic resource in traditional ways without any logical organizations of different types of land according to their agricultural potential or their physical configurations (Hudson 1995).
Land use / Land cover change plays a vital role in the study of global change. Land use / Land cover and human or natural modification have largely resulted in deforestation, biodiversity loss, global warming and increase of natural flooding. Thus environmental problems are often related to Land use/ Land cover change. The land use / land cover pattern of a region is an outcome of natural and socio economic factors and their utilization by man in time and space. Land is becoming a scarce resource due to population growth and the attendant immense agricultural and demographic pressure. Hence, information on land use / land cover and possibilities for their optimal use is essential for the selection, planning and implementation of land use schemes to meet the increasing demands for basic human needs and welfare. This information also assists in monitoring the dynamics of land use resulting out of changing demands of increasing population.
Due to anthropogenic activities, the earth surface is being significantly altered in some manner and man’s presence on the earth and his use of land has had a profound effect upon the natural environment. Thus, resulting into an observable pattern in the land use and land cover over time.
To understand how land use land cover affects and interacts with the earth systems (e.g. hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere), accurate information is needed on what types of changes occur, where information is needed, what information is needed and when they occur, and rates of at which changes occur (Lambin, 1997, as cited Bewket, Teferi, Uhlenbrook,Wenningeret.al, 2012).
Land use / Land cover change (LULCC) is agricultural and urbanization induced. Rapid rate of urbanization has been shown to be a global problem present in most of the developing countries. For instance, it was estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world’s Population will live in cities (UNPF, 1999). The relationship between population growth and land use change are in synergy; for the increase in population will lead to land use changes. The United Nations Press Release (2013) posited that the current World Population of 7.2 billion is projected to increase by almost 1billion people within the next 12 years, 8.1billion in 2025 and 9.6billion in 2050. Wilkie (1996), asserted that most of the population growth will occur in developing regions, which are projected to increase from5.9billion in 2013 to 8.2 billion in 2050 (Goje 2015).
Hence, accurate and up-to-date land cover change information is necessary to comprehend and assess the environmental consequences of such changes (Lambin and Geist, 2007). There is a continuing demand for up-to-date land use land cover information for any kind of sustainable development programmes where land use land cover serves as one of the prime input criteria. Analysis of detected change is the measure of the distinct data framework and thematic change information that can lead to more tangible discernment to underlying process involved in upbringing of land cover and land use changes (Ahmad, 2012).
Viewing the earth from space is now decisive to the understanding of the influence of man’s activities on his natural resource base over time. In situations of rapid and often unrecorded land use change, observations of the earth from space provide objective information of human utilization of the landscape. Over the past years, data from earth sensing satellites has become vital in mapping the Earth’s features and infrastructures, managing natural resources and studying environmental change. The prior benefit of land use land cover study is that it is one of the most precise techniques to understand land use land cover mechanism. Timely and precise information about land use land cover change is extremely important for better management and decision making.
Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are now providing new tools for advanced ecosystem management. The collection of remotely sensed data facilitates the synoptic analyses of earth system function, patterning, and change at local, regional and global scales over time; such data also provide an important link between intensive, localized ecological research and regional, national and international conservation and management of biological diversity (Wilkie and Finn, 1996).
Therefore, attempt will be made in this study to map out the status of land use/land cover of Gidan Waya between 1986 and 2016 with a view of detecting the land consumption rate and the changes that has taken place in this status particularly in the built-up land so as to proffer solutions to these impacts using both Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing data.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Land use changes arising from high rate of agriculture; pasturing, planting of crops, deforestation for timber and security purpose as well as road expansion are some of the contributing factors to land cover changes in Gidan Waya. These changes in land use land cover reflect the population growth, land consumption rate and climate. Expansion of Gidan Waya has resulted not only in depletion of natural resources, but deterioration of the environment. Productive and non-productive land and forest land have been converted into residential and other land use classes.
Gidan Waya has witnessed remarkable changes such as disappearance of what was once a vast forest land to agricultural lands and in other cases bare lands. Building, road construction, deforestation and many other anthropogenic activities just like many other areas in Nigeria. This has therefore resulted into increased land consumption and a modification and alterations in the status of her land use land cover over time without any detailed and comprehensive attempt (as provided by Remote Sensing data and Geographic Information System) to evaluate this status as it changes over time with the view of providing necessary information so that planners can have a basic tool for planning. It is therefore necessary for a study such as this to be carried out if Gidan Waya will avoid the associated problems of a growing and expanding city like many others in the world.
In the study area, little or no attempt has been made in the past to utilize remote sensing and Geographic Information System to carry out mapping before now, although attempt was made by Ishaya et al.(2009) to examine the urban expansion and loss of vegetation in Kaduna town. This research project will attempt to understand and estimate the effect of land use land cover change of the area by using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing technologies.
The researcher believes this project will provide base line information on issues of land use and land cover change and dynamics in relation to vegetation cover change in the study area. Basically, such information is vital for comparing the past and present condition and predicting the future trends of the land use land cover change and expanding such method of protecting the soil degradation and expanding such techniques to other towns.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the major driving forces behind the land use and land cover changes in Gidan Waya?.
- What is the extent of land use and land cover change in Gidan Waya between 1986 and 2016?
- What are the problems these changes have caused on the land cover?
- What are the possible solutions to those problems?
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of the study is to attempt mapping out the land use and land cover change of Gidan Waya area over the period of 30years (between 1986-2016) with a view of detecting the change that has taken place using Remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques.
The specific objectives of the project are:
I. To identify the factors responsible for the land use land cover changes in the area.
II. To determine the extent of land use land cover changes in Gidan Waya area.
III. To assess the effects of the changes in the land use land cover of the area and;
IV. To proffer solutions/recommendations to the problems highlighted.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis has been formulated so that this research can be efficiently and effectively carried out. The hypothesis will serve as a guide for the researcher;
H1: there is a significant difference between the land use/land cover of Gidan waya between 1986 and 2016.
H0: there is no significant difference between the land use land cover of Gidan waya between 1986 and 2016.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
The land use and land cover change within the study area has scientific and developmental importance for the future. The researcher believes this project will provide base line information on issues of land use and land cover change and dynamics in relation to vegetation cover change in the study area. Basically, such information is vital for comparing the past and present condition, expanding such method of protecting the soil degradation and expanding such techniques to the people in Gidan Waya. Therefore, community of Gidan Waya benefit primarily.
Furthermore, policy makers, development planners, local land managers and concerned bodies benefit a lot from this project.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The spatial extent of this research covers Gidan waya area, north – eastern parts of Jema’a Local Government Area and southern part of Kaura Local Government area of Kaduna State. The area is situated between longitude 08º 22”E and latitude 09º 32”N. the content scope will focus on the extent of land use / land cover changes, the magnitude of these changes , the level of encroachment and the implication of these changes from the land cover and uses including forest, urban land use, agriculture and water use between the period of 1986 and 2016.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
One of the limitations amongst many is the lack of available and/or reliable data for the study area. Little or no study as regards to land use / land cover changes in Gidan waya area. Secondly, in the bid to gather literatures for this study, it was made to light that there was no prior research.
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