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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Concept of Study

Over the past years, automobile manufacturers have been integrating all manner of security system, to its automobile, so as to ensure that users are provided with all the security needed to ensure the safety of the vehicle. Considering the lifestyle of most users, the companies realize that its customers are always busy and most times have little or no information about lifestyle beyond their work place. Also from their search it was found that a large percentage of vehicle users use cell phones as their primary means of staying in contact with their family, friends and offices, (Joann Muller (2005-11-28,). This led to the idea of developing a system that allows drivers and vehicle owners to stay in constant communication with the world outside their automobile.

Since the concept of security has become a major concern for our world, and to most vehicle users, automobile manufacturers employed the idea of  vehicle security system which do not just help the human agent but could on their own completely provide all the necessary security requirements without supervision.

An Automobile Security System (ASS) as a form of a vehicle security system combines the installation of an electronic device in a vehicle, or fleet of vehicles with purpose-designed computer software to enable the owner to track the vehicle’s location while collecting data in the process. In this kind of security system, a telecommunication system and method is used for instructing a device interfaced with a vehicle’s electrical system to activate or deactivate specific electrical device such as the ignition, car lock system and the electronic fuel injector using a cellular network. This can be accomplished by utilizing a mobile terminal or a unit containing the mobile terminal receiver, herein after referred to as a “GSM MODEM” or “Radio Interface Unit” (RIU), which is interconnected to a “Power Interface Unit” (PIU).

The PIU directly interconnects to the vehicle’s electrical system and ignition. This system enables the vehicle user to access their vehicle’s electrical system from remote places simply by dialing the cellular phone number (a number associated with the RIU/GSM MODEM) from another mobile phone. The RIU when triggered will either send notifications via SMS or call to the vehicle user or receive instructions from the same user to activate or deactivate electrical devices depending on the nature of instruction given by the user.

With ASS the user can perform functions such as locking the doors, switching off ignition, monitoring temperature, turning on light, cutting off the electronic fuel injector and having different reactions for several situations.

1.2      CLASSIFICATION OF AN AUTOMOBILE SECURITY SYSTEM (ASS)

There can be many differentiating factors used to classify Automobile Security Systems   but in this work, we will classify them under two major headings;

·        Intelligent systems.

·        Non-intelligent systems.

We could simplify it further as microcomputer based and non-microcomputer based security systems.

intelligent systems: These are security systems that have an intelligent device, which monitor the space area or variable under guard, and provide a response signal when there is a bridge in normalcy. These systems are made up digital devices like the microprocessors and microcontrollers and posses a level of intelligence by which they measure the variables under guard. They can also be completely un-manned or partially un-manned. In the design of these systems, sensors and transducers become a major part of the circuitry. Sensors and transducers are the actual components that work with the processor to achieve a fully automated system.

Non-Intelligent Systems: Non-intelligent systems are systems that do not have any processor in their circuitry. This ranges from the manual crude method that employs human effort and the manually run machines that aid the individual to the monitored cameras and laser monitoring intruder devices which blare alarms.

1.3  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim and objective of a car tracker system is to have a reliable and highly precision security means to ensure the safety of vehicles. If the vehicle was snatched, the device can help make searching more efficient. Without a car tracker system with code using GSM, there may be chances of someone not getting a stolen vehicle back. The objective of a car tracker system with code using GSM is to give its users the reassurance that they will definitely have their car restored in a shorter time.

1.3.2 SCOPE

The car tracker is use to immobilize or demobilize a vehicle when the authorized user calls the vehicle security number through a GSM mobile cell phone. Only the coded users/numbers can control the vehicle through their GSM phone. The GSM hardware system of the car tracker enables the mobile service provider to know the position of the vehicle anywhere in the world through their network using GSM tower triangulation.

1.4    COMMON USES OF AUTOMOBILE SECURITY SYSTEM (ASS)

Automobile security systems are commonly used by fleet operators for fleet management function, such as routing, dispatch, on-board information and security. Along with commercial fleet operators, urban transit agencies use the technology for a number of purposes, including monitoring schedule adherence of buses in services, triggering changes of buses destination sign displays at the end of the line (or other set location along a bus route) and triggering pre-recorded announcements for passengers. This can refer to the external announcements. Identifying the next stop, as the bus approaches a stop. Data collected as a transit vehicle follows its route is often continuously fed into a computer program which compares the vehicle’s actual location and time with its schedule, and in turn produces a frequently updating display for the driver telling him or her how early or late he or she is at any given time, potentially making it easier to adhere more closely to the published schedule. Such programs are also used to provide customers with real-time information as to the waiting time until arrival of the next bus at a given stop. Some transit agencies provide a virtual map on their website, with icons depicting the current locations of the buses in service on each route for customer’s information.

Other applications include:

·        Stolen vehicle recovery where both consumer and commercial vehicle can be outfitted with Radio Frequency (RF) units to allow the police to do tracking and recovery. The tracking unit can be activated directly and tracking signals followed by police or vehicle owner to track or monitor the vehicle.

·        Asset tracking where companies needing to track valuable assets for insurance or other monitoring purposes can now plot the real-time asset location on a map and closely monitor the movement and operation status of the asset.

·        Field service management companies with a field service workforce for services such as repair or maintenance, must be able to plan field workers’ time, schedule subsequent customer visit and be able to operate this department efficiently. Vehicle tracking allows companies to quickly locate a field engineer and dispatch the chosen one to meet a customer’s request.

·        Surveillance: here a tracker may be placed on a vehicle to follow the vehicle’s movements.

·        Transit tracking: here users ensure that the assets do not stop on the routes or do a U-turn in order to ensure the security of assets.

1.4.1   THEFT PREVENTION

Security is the topmost priority of any individual, group. This outlines security focus on cars for mitigating security risks to car owners. The ultimate goal of the security system is to prevent access to intruders thereby protecting the monitored device. This helps safeguard property of individuals, groups and organizations. The alarming increase in theft and related cases of intruders has necessitated the improvement on security infrastructure.

‘Immobilizer’, which is a type of vehicle anti-theft device, reduces a thief’s chances of starting or driving away a target vehicle. Immobilizers usually consist of a switch wired into some parts of the electrical section of the vehicle’s power unit, thus enabling the engine to be easily disabled.

1.5       System block diagram Overview

Phone

    Triggering circuit

 Digital Logic Circuit

Switching Circuit

Fuel injector

Touch sensor

GSM modem

Call the car owner

Controls


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