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The topic of this research is effects of standard costing on the profitability of a manufacturing company. The purpose of this study was to discover if the application of standard costing techniques have any effect on profitability, to explore the relationship between standard costing and the profitability of manufacturing companies and also to determine whether standard costing techniques and principles are being adopted and practiced in Nigerian manufacturing companies (Nigerian breweries, Ama Eke, Udi local government of Enugu state).
The design of this study is descriptive survey method and the study was conducted at Nigerian breweries, Ama which is the case study of this research work. The instrument of data collection was analyzed using the chi -square method.
The researcher discovered the following as her data findings that proper accounting records are kept and are significantly necessary in the management of the company. That the company employs standard costing in costing their product and decisions are made with the standard costing information obtained in the company.
That accounting reports are prepared and presented to the company’s management and that actions are taken promptly on the information given in the report. That effective application of standard costing has effect on the profitability of the company. That the company benefit in a significant way through the use of standard costing especially in the improvement of profit.
The researcher came to a conclusion that standard costing is widely used in Nigerian manufacturing companies and that standard costing enhances adequate planning, control and decision making processes in the company. That standard costing aids manufacturing companies in the elimination of unprofitable products, provision of costing information and cost control.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Approval page ii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the study 6
1.4 Research questions - 6
1.5 Hypothesis of the study 7
1.6 Significance of the study 8
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study 9
1.8 Definition of terms 10
2.1 Concept of standard costing 15
2.2 Features of standard costing 21
2.3 Advantages and disadvantages of standard costing 36
2.4 Concept of profitability 39
2.5 Profit and profitability 42
2.6 Measurement of profit 46
2.7 Areas where standard costing improve profitability 47
2.8 Brief historical background of the case study 54
Research design and methodology
3.1 Research design 63
3.2 Sources of data 63
3.3 Research instrument 65
3.4 Reliability /validity of research instrument 65
3.5 Population 66
3.6 Sample size / techniques 67
3.7 Administration of research instrument 69
3.8 Method of data analysis 70
3.9 Decision criterion for validation of hypothesis 70
Data presentation and analysis
4.1 Data presentation 73
4.2 Testing of hypothesis 92
Summary of findings, conclusions and recommendation
5.1 Summary of findings 102
5.2 Conclusions 103
5.3 Recommendations 105
The effect of standard of standard costing on profitability has been a problem to manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The standard costing as a tool for either improving or not improving profitability. Unlike its contemporaries in the field of science, it deals with human beings and calculation significant information.
Lucey (2002) defines standard costing as a technique which establishes pre determined cost estimates of the cost of products and services and then compares these pre determined costs with actual costs as they incurred. Standard cost represent am estimated or pre determines total cost of product per unit for an organization. Adeniji (2009) argues that the process of estimating the total cost of production per unit is described as standard costing technique.
Standard costing as a long established concept is the management function of planning and control. In effect, yardstick has been of vital importance for planning and control exercise. As a matter of fact, problems associated with production and earning a profit was recognized for many years before the concept of standard costing was invented. Standard costing appeared in the early twentieth century when transaction volumes were overwhelming the record keeping system in the use at that time. Since then, prevalent use of computer systems and automated data entry systems have reduced the need for standard costing, though not entirely eliminated.
These standard costs reveals goals, spur actions and efforts for effective management and equally provide checks such that exceptional profit oriented goal performance can be achieved and the reserve adequate punishment to be exercised for bad performance. Standard cost cause appraisal to be made over production facilities and form management intentions and capabilities and is a first step strength and weakness appraisal. These led to the preference of standard costing system in
1920’s. it was brought into the system such that total variances might be accumulated as well as detailed variances. These steps gave rise to formal expression that significant costs were not actual and historical cost but standard or planning cost and their variances.
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