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1.1 BACKROUND OF THE STUDY
Evaluation is the process of finding or deciding the amount or value of something. A job is a piece of work either to be done or completed. Job Evaluation is important to organization as it helps in placing value on the various jobs within the organization to determine their worth.
Job evaluation is the name given to any activity, which sets out to make a systematic comparison between jobs to assess their relative worth, for the purpose of establishing a rational pay structure in essence, job evaluation aims to advice reliance on arbitrary method pay determination by an organization by reducing an element of objectivity in the way jobs are compared. To enable employees perceives jobs are compared. To enable employees perceive job evaluation method requires at least some basic job analysis in order to provide factual information about the concerned. Nevertheless, as with many other aspects of personnel management, judgment has to exercise in the final analysis.
As Kempner (2002) points out, evaluation methods do depend to some extent on a series of subjective judgments made on the light of concepts like logic, job evaluation techniques is an attempt to minimize the subject element.
The study is on the importance of job evaluation in an organization to management and employees within the organization. It is important to note that the purpose of job evaluation in to produce a defensible ranking of Jobs on which a rational and acceptable pay structure can be built. And this enables salary to be based on the rational estimate of the contribution of individual jobs to the organization as it relates to skills responsibilities, length or training and others. The amount of compensation that an employee gets should reflect the worth of the employee to the organization. This is paid according to his or ability to perform for the organization. In a free racket economy, people place value on their worth and offer it to the highest bidder. So too does the organization need to place value on the services of its employees. There are numbers of important features of job evaluation which need to be recognized at the outset.
i. Job evaluation attempts to assess job, not people.
ii. The standard of job evaluation are relative not absolute.
iii. The basic information on which job evaluation are made is obtained from job analysis.
iv. Job evaluation committees utilize concepts such as logic fairness and consistency in their assessment of job.
v. Job evaluation is carried out by groups not by individuals.
vi. There is always some element subjective judgment in job evaluation.
vii. Job evaluation does not determine pay scales but merely provides the evidence on which they may be advised
Most organization use the following three factors to determine the salary employees should earn for their services, there are worth of the Job, performance and supply of labour. Hospital Management Board is an establishment of the Delta State Government and is responsible for health care service in Delta State. Due to this fact, the Board employs workers of different profession, category and walk and as a result has to use job evaluation to determine salary structure. Job evaluation is a job grading scheme within the organization and this is used for compiling salary scale, engaging workers to set training scheme for pay roll work and estimate cost and budgetary control. It must start with job analysis, job description and job specification.
The research work will look at the various types of methods employed by management in evaluation jobs that enable them compare the worth of one job in relation to one another and also that makes employers perceive such methods as equitable. They are analytical and non analytical methods.
A. Analytical methods
i. Factor comparison
ii. Point rating
B. Non analytical methods
i. Job ranking
ii. Job grading or job classification
The primary difference between these two categories is that the non analytical methods breaks job down into their components parts and then compare by factor.
The implication is that analytical methods provide a more defined means of measurement than noon analytical methods. This point is particularly important for equal pay legislation, since only analytical schemes are considered to provide an acceptance means of identifying ‘work equal’
It will also focus on some of the key point of jobs evaluation to the organization. These include assessing the job not the individual (i.e.) the worth of the job evaluation is done by the evaluation committee made up of employee’s members of union. Also that job evaluation alone cannot determine pay scale but provide a basis for making decision about pay because such factor like, inflation is considered in setting scale.
Finally, that there is always some element of subjectivity in job evaluation because objective in job evaluation because objective decision alone about the worth of the job is not enough job evaluation differs from performance evaluation, which is the process of determining how well employees are doing on their job. Job evaluation does not review an employee within a position to the organization. Through this process employee with less worth to the organization are paid less than those in position for more worth to the organization. And because of this employees tend perceive wages difference as equitable.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The following have been identified as the research problem;
I. How are bench mark job identified in their organization within the industry.
II. Can management explain and defined the particular method, the method chosen to employee
III. How does employee view the classification of their jobs into specific ranks?
IV. How much information does management need and how do they evaluate the method chosen?
V. To what extend are decision achieved from the evaluation method used?
VI. Does management achieve its organizational objective of staffing through job evaluation?
Job evaluation gives rise to the above mentioned problems and the research will proffer through which solution to those problems can be achieved.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The following are the objectives of carrying out this research.
i. To determine why management rate some jobs higher than others.
ii. Determination of the evaluation technique management uses in evaluation the growth of jobs.
iii. Whether job evaluation leads to decrease the efficiency of these employees with less valuable jobs.
iv. If employers and employees see job evaluation processes in the same light.
Job evaluation is in recent time causing problems in the labour industry especially among professionals who claim that they are equal in the organization this is as a result of the fact that they will want to be paid as much as the others because they assume that all of them have passed through the same rigorous training in their different field of specialization.
These researches will enables us realize that organization on places worth on the jobs that they perceive are important to differential in an organization depends on the area of operation and line of business of the organization.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTION
The underline questions are to be asked to carry out the research to facilitate easy investigation of the problems.
i. Dose improper job evaluation lead to problems?
ii. How dose job employees see the method of job evaluation used?
iii. How dose management determine that one job is more important or valuable to the other in the organization?
iv. What yardstick dose management employ in deciding of the management in job evaluation matters?
1.5. STATEMENT OF HYPOTHENSIS
The research has formulated the following hypothesis.
It. The use of job evaluation helps management to determine jobs that are more important to the organization.
Ho. The use of jobs evaluation does not help management determine jobs that are more important to the management.
1.6. SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this research work will be focused on the Delta state hospital management Board, Asaba.
1.7. SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The researcher believe that at the end of this study, that findings and recommendations will be available to both management and employees alike. The significance includes the following;
i. It will be useful to management and employees of organization in the process of job evaluation.
ii. Creating the awareness of the importance of job evaluation to organizations.
iii. To accelerate the worth of job evaluation in determine on the organization.
iv. To bring to employees the importance of job evaluation in the organization.
v. How improper job evaluation can be avoided through the use of the right methods job evaluation.
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