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Job satisfaction has become an important area in organizational pursuit of productivity. In this study, effort was made to examine job satisfaction and employee productivity in the Nigerian banking sector. The survey design was adopted for the study. Primary data were obtained for the study through the use of questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the statistical tool for the study. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested using multiple regression statistical analysis. All the null hypotheses were rejected and the alternative accepted. It was found out from the study that attitude to work, achievement and recognition have a significant positive implications and influence on employee productivity in the Nigerian banking sector. Thus, it was concluded that efforts should be geared towards improving job satisfaction of the employees, since it has a significant positive influence on employee productivity in the Nigerian banking sector. Also, it was recommended that managers should encourage the employees to exhibit good attitude to work, take active role in employee achievement opportunity, career plan and development, reward and compensate employee contribution and effort forward the overall productivity of the banks.
1.1 Background to the Study
Job satisfaction has become an essential aspect in organizational pursuit of productivity. The ideas of job satisfaction signify an individual’s general attitude towards his or her job (Robbins, 1999). Locke (1976) posited that job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. In other words, it refers to a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. People spend at least a third of their lives working. It is therefore, necessary that they should feel happy about their jobs if their general welfare is not to be affected adversely. Job satisfaction is determined by employees’ perception of how well their job provides those things they consider as important to them. Thus, if workers feel that they are well treated and equitably rewarded for their contributions to the organization, they are likely to have a positive attitude toward the job, their superiors and co-workers which inturn will translate into high productivity.
For organizations to be productive, it is required that the manpower should be happy and content with their job profiles in order to put in efforts for the overall growth of the organization. A happy worker is a productive worker and job satisfaction has wide organizational implications. Job satisfaction has an enormous influence on the life of an individual. The successful implementation of any strategy depends upon employee hard work and as well as how the organization is being structured. Alina (2010) posited that bank employees play an important role for the good performance of the bank by delivering good financial services to its target audience. Job satisfaction of bank employees is an important concept which if properly handled will lead to efficiency vis-à-vis productivity. An organization is said to be effective if it achieves its objective of being in existence.
Thus, employees are the single most important asset in any enterprise that want to achieve excellence. They are the keys to higher productivity and efficiency, hence their needs have to be taken care of in order to lead to satisfaction with their jobs. Most managers have discovered that productive work cannot be achieved through command, order or executive fiat but that, Improved employee productivity depends on individual motivation that gives them job satisfaction. Achieving goals and being recognized for doing so is intrinsically motivating.
Satisfaction that employee obtain from work varies; some obtained satisfaction from their work environment others from the nature of the job. Those in the banking sector derived their own satisfaction from the nature of their job and other benefits they receive from the organization. Job satisfaction is a function of emotion; when an individual is not motivated he cannot put in his best. Therefore, job satisfaction when is present at a high rate will transform into employee high productivity.
The issue of employee well-being and job performance has been discussed in a broad sense in connection with the happy/productive worker thesis (Wright & Cropanzano, 2007). The issue has also been viewed more narrowly as the connection of job satisfaction and job performance. According to the happy/productive worker thesis, the tendency of unhappy people to emphasize negative aspects of their work leads to lower job performance. This holds especially in jobs that require social interaction with co-workers or customers. The unhappy workers may also have negative over effects on the performance of other employees (Petri, 2012).
Job satisfaction is a narrower measure of well-being than happiness because it covers only well-being that is related to the job. Job satisfaction measures, however, have been easily available, and an extensive literature has examined the connections of job satisfaction with performance. There are various channels through which job satisfaction (or, more generally, well-being) can affect productivity. First, there is the direct impact on a person’s measured productivity (for example supervisor ratings). This may be a result of a lower tendency to conscious or unconscious shirking, that is, less tendency to slow down work. Second, satisfied workers may also exhibit more organizational citizenship and less counterproductive organizational behavior. They may also have a lower tendency to strike and take other industrial action. Third, there are positive productivity effects through decreased absenteeism. Workers not satisfied with their jobs may have a greater tendency to develop illnesses or even remain absent from work without illness. While absent, a person’s productivity is, of course, zero, and even if a substitute is found or the other workers can make for the work of the absent employee, productivity is likely to fall. Fourth, job dissatisfaction leads to quit intentions and actual separations. Quits and subsequent replacement hiring create costs for firms in form of lower productivity; even when it is the least productive worker who leaves. Finally, it has been argued that job satisfaction is related to lower accident rates, which should lead to high productivity. An accident causes a direct loss of production for the worker involved; hurt may also cause wider disruptions in the production process (Petri & Pekka, 2012).
This study focuses on job satisfaction and employees productivity in the Nigerian banking sector with a particular reference to Guaranty Trust Bank (GT Bank). Guaranty Trust Bank Plc was incorporated on 17 January 1990 and commenced operations in February 1991. Guaranty Trust Bank was quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange in September 1996 and has it headquarter at 635 Akin Adesola Street, Victoria Island, Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria and branches across the federation. The nature of its services is banking and the vision statement is that they are a team driven to deliver the utmost in customer service, which are synonymous with innovation, building excellence and superior financial performance and creating role models for society and mission statement of being high quality financial services provider with the urge to be the best at all times whilst adding value to all stakeholders.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The interest in this study arose from personal observations over the years that, there are several employees in the Nigerian banking sector who left their jobs due to lack of achievement and recognition. When employers are employed in the bank, these employees are initially happy, but shortly after their employment, some of these employees feel that their job does not give them room to develop themselves. Some leave the banks by themselves while others are layed off by the management. This attitude result in high level of employee turnover, and contributes to low productivities in many of the banks in Nigeria.
The Nigerian banking sector has some what suffered a roller coaster ride especially when one considers the shrinkage in the number of banks in Nigeria. An unsteady sector can throw those who work in it, unto all manners of psychological conditions such as feelings of job insecurity, occupational street burnout and loss of self-efficacy. It is believed that there is a significant relationship between an employee’s productivity and his attitude to work, the work place, recognition and advancement. What do people want from their job? What factors affect a workers attitude or feelings?
One wonders why this happens even when the banks seem to be one of the major employers of labour in Nigeria. However, a look at other empirical literature at a glance, revealed that not, much has been done in the area of job satisfaction and employees productivity among banks in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. It is in the light of the above that this study is undertaken.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of job satisfaction on employee productivity in Nigerian banking sector. The specific objectives are as follows to:
(i) Examine the implications of attitude to work on employee productivity in Nigerian banking sector.
(ii) Determine the influence of recognition on employee productivity in Nigerian banking sector
(iii) Ascertain the effect of achievement on employee productivity in Nigerian banking sector.
1.4 Research Questions
In line with the objectives of the study following research questions were formulated:
i. What are the implications of attitude to work on employee
productivity in Nigerian banking sector?
ii. How does of recognition affect employee productivity in Nigerian banking sector?
iii. What are the effects of achievement on employee productivity in Nigerian banking sector?
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
Based on the research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated in the null form.
Ho1: There is no significant positive relationship between attitude to work and employees productivity in Nigerian banking sector.
Ho2: Recognition has no positive significant influence on employee productivity in Nigeria banking sector.
Ho3: Achievement does not have positive significant effect on employee productivity in Nigerian banking sector.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research work is limited to the Nigerian banking sector; precisely Guaranty Trust Bank plc in Uyo. This study examined job satisfaction and employees productivity among staff in GTB Plc in Uyo. In the course of this study, questionnaire was distributed to different categories of the worker in this service organization. The study examined issues like employees attitudes to work advancement and, recognition as measures of job satisfaction and how the influence employee productivity in the Nigerian banking sector.
1.7 Significance of the study
The study will be useful to students and researchers who may want to use the material as a guide for future reference. It will be a great tool for bank managers and other business organizations when making decisions.
In addition, government and other non governmental organizations will find the material useful during policy formulation and decision making. The study will most especially help the researchers that are interested in job satisfaction and employee productivity in Nigeria banking sector.
The findings from this study will be of benefit to the Nigerian banking sector, and the stakeholders of service firms; as this will provide them with insight in knowing the significance of job satisfaction and employee productivity in that sector.
The findings from this study will assist various stakeholders such as creditors, depositors and host communities where banks operate. The study will contribute and add to existing stock of empirical literature on the impact of job satisfaction an employee productivity. The study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge on how best job improve employees productivity through satisfaction strategy.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study was organized into five chapters.
Chapter one involved the introduction of the study. It contained background to the study, the statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, the research questions, hypotheses of the study, the scope of the study, the significance of the study, the limitation of the study and the organization of the study.
Chapter two covered the review of related literature. It contained conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical review. Chapter three covered the methodology, research design, population of the study, sample size sampling technique, sources of data, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, model specification, identification and definition of variables, validity and reliability of the instrument and decision rule.
Chapter four deal with results and discussion of the findings. While chapter five covered summary, conclusion and recommendations
1.9 Limitations of the Study
This study was restricted to Nigerian banking sector. In this study, the researcher was limited to Nigerian banking sector. However, the findings of the study can not be generalized, since the researcher did not have access to other banks in Nigeria to elicit information from their documents.
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
1st Achievement: The feeling of accomplishment
2nd Attitude to Work: This means the feeling and the efforts which an employee brings in the organization
3rd Effectiveness: The ability to accomplish a job with a minimum resource.
4th Efficiency: The process of accomplishing a task within a specific period of time.
5th Employee productivity: This means the driven force behind a company growth and profitability.
6th Job Satisfaction: This involves feeling of pleasure and achievement experience when a job is accomplished.
7th Recognition: A reward process adopted by an organization
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